Between 2002 and 2004, the United States accorded new prominence to political and economic reform and democratization as policy goals in the Middle East. Continuing that trend and translating rhetoric into effective strategies both depend on whether reform and democratization become fully integrated into the U.S. policy agenda in the region.
Click on link above for the full text of this Carnegie Paper.
About the Author
Michele Dunne, a visiting scholar at the Carnegie Endowment, is a visiting lecturer at Georgetown University. She served in the Department of State on assignments including the National Security Council Staff, the Secretary of State’s Planning Staff, the U.S. Embassy in Cairo and the U.S. Consulate in Jerusalem.
A limited number of print copies are available.
Request a copy
The Carnegie Democracy and Rule of Law Program rigorously examines the global state of democracy and the rule of law and international efforts to support their advance.
of the Chinese general public
believe their country should share a global leadership role.
of Indian parliamentarians
have criminal cases pending against them.
charter schools in the United States
are linked to Turkey’s Gülen movement.
thousand tons of chemical weapons
are in North Korea’s possession.
of import tariffs
among Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru have been eliminated.
trillion a year
is unaccounted for in official Chinese income statistics.
of GDP in oil-exporting Arab countries
comes from the mining sector.
of Europeans and Turks
are opposed to intervention in Syria.
of Russian exports to China
are hydrocarbons; machinery accounts for less than 1%.
of undiscovered oil
is in the Arctic.
U.S. government shutdowns
occurred between 1976 and 1996.
want an “international economic union” with the EU.
million electric bicycles
are used in Chinese cities.
of the world’s energy supply
is consumed by cities.
of today’s oils
require unconventional extraction techniques.
of the world's population
will reside in cities by 2050.
of Syria’s population
is expected to be displaced by the end of 2013.
of the U.S. economy
is consumed by healthcare.
of Brazilian protesters
learned about a massive rally via Facebook or Twitter.
million cases pending
in India’s judicial system.
1 in 3
now needs urgent assistance.
contested India’s last national elections.
of Egypt's labor force
works in the private sector.
of oil consumed in the United States
is for the transportation sector.
of Chechnya’s pre-1994 population
has fled to different parts of the world.
of oil consumed in China
was from foreign sources in 2012.
billion in goods and services
traded between the United States and China in 2012.
billion in foreign investment and oil revenue
have been lost by Iran because of its nuclear program.
increase in China’s GDP per capita
between 1972 and today.
billion have been spent
to complete the Bushehr nuclear reactor in Iran.
of Iran’s electricity needs
is all the Bushehr nuclear reactor provides.
were imprisoned in Turkey as of August 2012 according to the OSCE.
Enter your email address to receive the latest Carnegie analysis in your inbox!
You are leaving the website for the Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy and entering a website for another of Carnegie's global centers.