Press Release: Blueprint for an Effective Non-Proliferation Regime Released On 35th Anniversary of Non-Proliferation Treaty

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Contact: Jennifer Linker, 202/939-2372,

Non-proliferation experts at the Carnegie Endowment have released a blueprint for a new, international nuclear non-proliferation regime, with a central theme of universal compliance with the norms and rules of a tougher nuclear non-proliferation policy. Compliance emphasizes enforcement over declarations of good intent. Universal means that norms and rules must be extended not just to treaty members but to all states (including the nuclear powers), and to individuals and corporations as well. Universal Compliance: A Strategy for Nuclear Security is available at

The authors will discuss the strategy on Thursday, March 3rd, an event which will be aired as a LIVE AT CARNEGIE audiocast on the web,

“The world has changed, but the regime has not changed with it. Fundamental problems must be addressed. In particular, enforcement must be taken more seriously. We propose that, for the first time, all players—including the nuclear powers, treaty signatories, Pakistan, India, and Israel, and the private sector—be part of the solution,” said Jessica Mathews, Carnegie president and report coauthor. Among the key innovations and recommendations of the strategy: 

  • End production of highly enriched uranium worldwide and adopt a pause in the separation of plutonium.
  • Accelerate “Global Cleanout” of nuclear materials from all vulnerable sites.
  • Ensure that a state withdrawing from the Non-Proliferation Treaty is still responsible for violations it committed while in the treaty, and prevent states withdrawing from the treaty from legally using nuclear assets acquired before their withdrawal.
  • Convene a high-level group to prevent nuclear terrorism that would establish a global standard for protecting weapons, materials, and facilities.
  • Develop voluntary standards with corporations and banks, committing them to block trade, loan, and investment activity that supports the illegal acquisition of nuclear capabilities.
  •  Persuade India, Israel, and Pakistan to accept the same nonproliferation obligations accepted by the five original nuclear weapon states.

The twenty-step priority action agenda is available on the web, along with all the obligations and recommendations. This is the final version of a report released for worldwide review in June, 2004; the authors consulted with experts and government officials in the United States and 20 countries across Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the former Soviet states, and Russia.

THE AUTHORS:  George Perkovich is vice president for studies; Jessica Mathews is president; Joseph Cirincione and Rose Gottemoeller are senior associates; and Jon B. Wolfsthal is an associate.


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In Fact



of the Chinese general public

believe their country should share a global leadership role.


of Indian parliamentarians

have criminal cases pending against them.


charter schools in the United States

are linked to Turkey’s Gülen movement.


thousand tons of chemical weapons

are in North Korea’s possession.


of import tariffs

among Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru have been eliminated.


trillion a year

is unaccounted for in official Chinese income statistics.


of GDP in oil-exporting Arab countries

comes from the mining sector.


of Europeans and Turks

are opposed to intervention in Syria.


of Russian exports to China

are hydrocarbons; machinery accounts for less than 1%.


of undiscovered oil

is in the Arctic.


U.S. government shutdowns

occurred between 1976 and 1996.


of Ukrainians

want an “international economic union” with the EU.


million electric bicycles

are used in Chinese cities.


of the world’s energy supply

is consumed by cities.


of today’s oils

require unconventional extraction techniques.


of the world's population

will reside in cities by 2050.


of Syria’s population

is expected to be displaced by the end of 2013.


of the U.S. economy

is consumed by healthcare.


of Brazilian protesters

learned about a massive rally via Facebook or Twitter.


million cases pending

in India’s judicial system.

1 in 3


now needs urgent assistance.


political parties

contested India’s last national elections.


of Egypt's labor force

works in the private sector.


of oil consumed in the United States

is for the transportation sector.


of Chechnya’s pre-1994 population

has fled to different parts of the world.


of oil consumed in China

was from foreign sources in 2012.


billion in goods and services

traded between the United States and China in 2012.


billion in foreign investment and oil revenue

have been lost by Iran because of its nuclear program.


increase in China’s GDP per capita

between 1972 and today.


billion have been spent

to complete the Bushehr nuclear reactor in Iran.


of Iran’s electricity needs

is all the Bushehr nuclear reactor provides.



were imprisoned in Turkey as of August 2012 according to the OSCE.

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