Urging the U.S. democracy assistance community to relate their work abroad to the problems of U.S. democracy:

“Look Homeward, Democracy Promoter,” Foreign Policy, January 2016.

A forward-looking assessment of challenges and opportunities in U.S. democracy promotion:

"Reenergizing Democracy Promotion," Global Ten: Challenges and Opportunities for the President in 2013, Carnegie Endowment, November 2012.

A stocktaking of the Obama administration's approach to democracy promotion:

Democracy Promotion Under Obama:  Revitalization or Retreat? Carnegie Endowment, January 2012.

A critique and suggested renovation of U.S. democracy assistance programs:

Revitalizing Democracy Assistance: The Case of USAID, Carnegie Endowment, October 2009.

A comprehensive analysis of George W. Bush’s approach to democracy promotion and a proposed alternative path:

U.S. Democracy Promotion During and After Bush, Carnegie Endowment, September 2007.

Identifying the tension between U.S. democracy promotion and the U.S. war on terrorism:

“Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terrorism,” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2007.

Assessing democracy promotion under Bill Clinton:

The Clinton Record on Democracy Promotion, Carnegie Endowment, September 2000.


An analysis of the nature and impact of the global protest phenomenon:

The Complexities of Global Protests, Carnegie Endowment, October 2015.

A collaborative exploration of why new technologies that offer powerful tools for empowerment have not delivered more democracy:

“Why Technology Hasn’t Delivered More Democracy,” Foreign Policy, June 2015.

Probing the solidity of the apparent broad consensus around four core development principles:

Accountability, Transparency, Participation, and Inclusion: A New Development Consensus?, Carnegie Endowment, October 2014.

An analysis of the complex relationship between politics and development aid, exploring how aid providers can think and act politically:

Development Aid Confronts Politics: The Almost Revolution, Carnegie Endowment, 2013 (co-authored with Diane de Gramont).

An examination of the persistent separation between democracy aid and socioeconomic aid:

“The Elusive Synthesis,” Journal of Democracy, October 2010.

Commentaries on Elusive Synthesis:

Levy, Brian. “The Case for Principled Agnosticism,” Journal of Democracy, October 2010.

Wollack, Kenneth and K. Scott Hubli. “Getting Convergence Right,” Journal of Democracy, October 2010.

Distinguishing two major approaches to democracy support, and analyzing their place in US and European assistance efforts:

“Democracy Assistance: Political versus Developmental,” Journal of Democracy, January 2009.

Arguing against the idea that democratization should wait for economic development:

“How Democracies Emerge: The Sequencing Fallacy,” Journal of Democracy, January 2007. 

Debate forum over the Sequencing Fallacy article:

Fukuyama, Francis, Edward D. Mansfield and Jack Snyder, and Shari Berman. “The Debate on ‘Sequencing’,” Journal of Democracy, July 2007.   

Contending with Zakaria’s arguments about the dangers of democracy:

“Zakaria’s Complaint,” National Interest, Summer 2003.

Rethinking how to understand political transitions:

“The End of the Transition Paradigm,” Journal of Democracy, January 2002.

Debate forum over The End of the Transition Paradigm:

“Forum on ‘The End of the Transition Paradigm’,” Journal of Democracy, July 2002.


Examining how Western public and private funders are responding to the increasing restrictions on support for civil society around the world:

“The Closing Space Challenge: How Are Funders Responding?” Carnegie Endowment, November 2015.

Evaluating the growing domain of non-Western forces influencing political transitions around the world:

“The New Global Marketplace of Political Change,” Carnegie Endowment, April 2015.

A stocktaking of the state of democracy aid and the central dilemma it faces for the future:

“Democracy Aid at 25: Time to Choose,” Journal of Democracy, January 2015.

An exploration of Egypt’s repeated violations of almost all received ‘best practices’ of democratic transitions and the implications for aid providers seeking to help transitional actors learn from others:

Learning Lessons on Lessons Learned,” Alliance Magazine, December 2014.

Assessing the scope, causes, and potential responses to the global pushback against democracy and rights support:

Closing Space: Democracy and Human Rights Support Under Fire, Carnegie Endowment, February 2014.

Evaluating progress in governance assistance:

“Aiding Governance in Developing Countries: Progress Amid Uncertainties,” Carnegie Endowment, November 2011.

Identifying and assessing the new role of non-Western actors in democracy support:

“Looking for Help: Will Rising Democracies Become International Democracy Supporters?” Carnegie Endowment, July 2011.

Suggesting closer connections between academic research and democracy assistance:

“Research Imperatives of Democracy Promotion.” APSA Comparative Democratization Newsletter, October 2010.

Calling attention to the backlash against democracy assistance in multiple parts of the world:

“The Backlash Against Democracy Promotion,” Foreign Affairs, March/April 2006.

Further analysis of the backlash:

“The Continuing Backlash Against Democracy Promotion,” in New Challenges to Democratization. Richard Youngs and Peter Burnell, eds, 2010. 

A comprehensive assessment of political party assistance:

Confronting the Weakest Link: Aiding Political Parties in New Democracies, Carnegie Endowment, 2006.

Reflections on the longer-term evolution of democracy assistance:

“A Quarter Century of Democracy Promotion,” Journal of Democracy, October 2007.

Critically examining civil society assistance:

Funding Virtue: Civil Society Aid and Democracy Promotion, Carnegie Endowment, 2000.

An early comprehensive account of the democracy assistance field:

Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve, Carnegie Endowment, 1999.


An assessment of the Egyptian opposition under Morsi, providing comparative perspective:

"Egypt's Dismal Opposition: A Second Look," Carnegie Endowment, May 2013.

Cautioning against simplistic analogies to 1989:

“Approach Analogies with Caution,” Alliance Magazine, December 2011.

Comparative reflections on the outbreak of political upheaval in the Arab world:

“Think Again: Arab Democracy,” Foreign Policy, 10 March 2011.

Warning against partisanship vis-à-vis Islamists in Egypt:

“How Not to Promote Democracy in Egypt,” Washington Post, 24 February 2011.

Offering a comparison between political change in Egypt and Indonesia:

“Egypt and Indonesia,” New Republic, 2 February 2011.

Critiquing the idea that the Bush administration strongly emphasized supporting Arab democracy:

“The Democracy Crusade Myth,” National Interest, July/August 2007.

A wide-ranging examination of the challenge of supporting democracy in the Arab world:

Uncharted Journey: Promoting Democracy in the Middle East, Carnegie Endowment, 2005.

Warning against the idea of rapid democratization in Iraq and the Arab world generally:

Democratic Mirage in the Middle East, Carnegie Endowment, October 2002.

Questioning a direct between supporting democracy and reducing terrorism:

“Democracy: Terrorism’s Uncertain Antidote,” Current History, December 2003.


Common analytic mistakes in rule of law promotion:

“Rule of Law Temptations,” The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Winter/Spring 2009.

A comprehensive look at rule of law assistance:

Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge, Carnegie Endowment, 2006.

Pointing to the weak base of knowledge for rule of law assistance:

Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: The Problem of Knowledge, Carnegie Endowment, January 2003.

Identifying the surge of interest in rule of law support:

“The Rule of Law Revival,” Foreign Affairs, March 1998.