In the long standoff regarding its nuclear ambition, Iran has cultivated ambiguity and been loath to reliably assure the international community of its ultimate intentions, complicating Western efforts to understand, let alone constrain, Tehran’s endeavors. While many analyses have focused on how to prevent or contain a potential nuclear-armed Iran, the posture Iran would adopt once it has developed its nuclear weapons remains elusive. This paper highlights that while opting for command-and-control (C2) arrangements, Iran would have to reconcile two contrasting imperatives: first, to disperse assets and decentralize C2 to minimize the risks and potential damages of a disabling strike, which has been seen as a real – even imminent – threat in recent years. A contrasting concern emerged as the Iranian Revolutionay Guards’ Corps became a key formulator and executor of Tehran’s security policy: how to guard against the risk of unauthorized use of major weapons systems? Among the factors that could influence Iran’s choices in terms of C2 arrangements, this paper focuses on Tehran’s national security experience, the lessons it may have derived from it, as well as from the experience of other countries.
of the Chinese general public
believe their country should share a global leadership role.
of Indian parliamentarians
have criminal cases pending against them.
charter schools in the United States
are linked to Turkey’s Gülen movement.
thousand tons of chemical weapons
are in North Korea’s possession.
of import tariffs
among Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru have been eliminated.
trillion a year
is unaccounted for in official Chinese income statistics.
of GDP in oil-exporting Arab countries
comes from the mining sector.
of Europeans and Turks
are opposed to intervention in Syria.
of Russian exports to China
are hydrocarbons; machinery accounts for less than 1%.
of undiscovered oil
is in the Arctic.
U.S. government shutdowns
occurred between 1976 and 1996.
want an “international economic union” with the EU.
million electric bicycles
are used in Chinese cities.
of the world’s energy supply
is consumed by cities.
of today’s oils
require unconventional extraction techniques.
of the world's population
will reside in cities by 2050.
of Syria’s population
is expected to be displaced by the end of 2013.
of the U.S. economy
is consumed by healthcare.
of Brazilian protesters
learned about a massive rally via Facebook or Twitter.
million cases pending
in India’s judicial system.
1 in 3
now needs urgent assistance.
contested India’s last national elections.
of Egypt's labor force
works in the private sector.
of oil consumed in the United States
is for the transportation sector.
of Chechnya’s pre-1994 population
has fled to different parts of the world.
of oil consumed in China
was from foreign sources in 2012.
billion in goods and services
traded between the United States and China in 2012.
billion in foreign investment and oil revenue
have been lost by Iran because of its nuclear program.
increase in China’s GDP per capita
between 1972 and today.
billion have been spent
to complete the Bushehr nuclear reactor in Iran.
of Iran’s electricity needs
is all the Bushehr nuclear reactor provides.
were imprisoned in Turkey as of August 2012 according to the OSCE.
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