October 21 marks the twentieth anniversary of the 1994 Agreed Framework with North Korea, which froze Pyongyang’s nuclear weapons program in return for the provision of nuclear power reactors and the eventual normalization of ties with the U.S. In the decades since the Agreed Framework was struck and then subsequently unraveled, successive American presidential administrations seem to have exhausted available policy tools in an effort to curtail North Korea’s growing nuclear and missile capabilities.

Carnegie held a conversation with key players from the Clinton, Bush, and Obama administrations who have dealt directly with North Korea and who shared their insights and advice for the future. Carnegie’s Duyeon Kim moderated.

Robert Gallucci

Robert Gallucci is distinguished professor in the practice of diplomacy at Georgetown University. He served as ambassador-at-large and chief U.S. negotiator of the 1994 Agreed Framework with North Korea during the Clinton administration, as well as special envoy and assistant secretary of state for political-military affairs during his twenty-one years of distinguished service. He was also president of the MacArthur Foundation, and dean of the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University for thirteen years.

Victor Cha

Victor Cha is a senior adviser and Korea chair at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, as well as the director of Asian studies and D.S. Song-KF chair at Georgetown University. He served as director for Asian affairs at the National Security Council and the deputy U.S. head of delegation at the Six-Party Talks during the Bush administration.

Sydney Seiler

Sydney Seiler is special envoy for the Six-Party Talks. He previously served as the director for Korea in the White House National Security Council for the Obama administration, and as a mission manager for North Korea in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.

Duyeon Kim

Duyeon Kim is an associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. She was previously the senior fellow and deputy director of nonproliferation at the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. She also served as the foreign ministry correspondent and unification ministry correspondent for Arirang TV, covering the Six-Party Talks.