As cyberspace has emerged as the new frontier for geopolitics, states have become entrepreneurial in their sponsorship, deployment, and exploitation of hackers as proxies to project power.
The four-decade-long U.S.-Iran cold war has increasingly moved into cyberspace. Tehran has become increasingly adept at conducting cyber espionage and disruptive attacks against opponents at home and abroad.
Incidents involving Iran have been among the most sophisticated, costly, and consequential attacks in the history of the internet.
Confrontation in cyber space is increasingly alarming. To come to grips with cyber power and its implications, people naturally turn to historical analogies.
Efforts to promote international norms for cyberspace are more likely to succeed if their advocates clearly grasp and convey to other actors how norms tend to function in different global contexts.
Increasingly frequent and severe cyberattacks targeting the private sector are fueling debates around the world over whether or not to allow corporations to engage in active cyber defense.
Understanding Cyber Conflict draws lessons from past technological disruptions to inform and shape responses to today’s cyber challenges.
Identifying the legal norms that apply in cyberspace remains highly challenging.
Identifying legal norms that apply in cyberspace remains challenging. The collapse of the 5th UN Group of Governmental Experts shows the difficulty states have in agreeing on principles such as the right of self-defense in cyberspace and international humanitarian law during armed conflict.
The G20 should commit not to manipulate the integrity of data and algorithms of financial institutions and to cooperate when such incidents occur.
The Carnegie Cyber Policy Initiative focuses on addressing international cyber policy challenges, as cyberspace is increasingly central to international security and diplomacy. The Initiative develops and promotes norms and policy recommendations for enhancing international stability and security in cyberspace.