Three potential paths have emerged for future efforts to develop norms for state behavior in cyberspace.
As cyberspace has emerged as a new frontier for geopolitics, states have become entrepreneurial in their sponsorship, deployment, and exploitation of hackers as proxies to project power.
Cyber, like the nuclear field, is now a leading means through which international relations play out today.
The story of Karim Baratov and Alexsey Belan provides insight into proxy relationships between the Russian state and hackers.
Many states are employing ostensibly independent hackers as proxies to project influence both domestically and overseas.
Many states outsource their cyber operations to non-state actors, with varying degrees of control over their actions. The crisis in Ukraine is a perfect example of this phenomenon.
To understand how Iran uses cyber proxies, it’s important to understand how Tehran thinks about cyber security in the first place.
As cyberspace has emerged as the new frontier for geopolitics, states have become entrepreneurial in their sponsorship, deployment, and exploitation of hackers as proxies to project power.
The four-decade-long U.S.-Iran cold war has increasingly moved into cyberspace. Tehran has become increasingly adept at conducting cyber espionage and disruptive attacks against opponents at home and abroad.
Incidents involving Iran have been among the most sophisticated, costly, and consequential attacks in the history of the internet.
The Carnegie Cyber Policy Initiative focuses on addressing international cyber policy challenges, as cyberspace is increasingly central to international security and diplomacy. The Initiative develops and promotes norms and policy recommendations for enhancing international stability and security in cyberspace.