The conflict in Syria has created the largest refugee crisis since World War II. Whether refugees return to Syria depends on a number of conditions—such as governance and personal safety as well as political transition.
Joseph Bahout is a visiting scholar in Carnegie’s Middle East Program. His research focuses on political developments in Lebanon and Syria, regional spillover from the Syrian crisis, and identity politics across the region.
Frances Z. Brown is a fellow with Carnegie’s Democracy and Rule of Law Program, where she researches stabilization, state building, democratization, decentralization, drivers of conflict, and local governance in fragile states.
Perry Cammack is a fellow in the Middle East Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he focuses on long-term regional trends and their implications for American foreign policy.
Co-Director Program on Civil-Military Relations in Arab States Carnegie Middle East Center
Vittoria Federici is the co-director of the Program on Civil-Military Relations in Arab States at the Carnegie Middle East Center, where her work focuses on defense affairs and security issues related to North Africa and the Levant.
Kim Ghattas is a senior visiting fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where she is focused on writing a book about the impact of the rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia on the wider region since 1979.
Yezid Sayigh is a senior fellow at the Carnegie Middle East Center in Beirut, where he leads the program on Civil-Military Relations in Arab States (CMRAS). His work focuses on the comparative political and economic roles of Arab armed forces and nonstate actors, the impact of war on states and societies, and the politics of post-conflict reconstruction and security sector transformation in Arab transitions, and authoritarian resurgence.