Engagement in Central Asia, the Russian Far East, and the Arctic has tested Russia’s and China’s abilities to manage their differences and translate the rhetoric of partnership into tangible gains.
While China is unlikely to have a debt crisis, it will face more difficulties when making the adjustment as debt accumulates. A strong leadership may then be required to implement necessary reforms.
When Beijing says the words “economic reform,” it doesn’t mean what market and political players beyond its borders might wish it meant.
It is Trump administration policies and attitudes that have provided China a rhetorical opening in Latin America at a time when China’s economic and political relations with the region face serious challenges.
If and when the UK decides to close the curtain on its EU membership, China will be there, if and only if it suits Beijing’s own agenda.
Recently, China unilaterally changed an aviation route, designated M503, without consulting Taiwan. This move has chilled relations between the two countries and threatened cooperative flight agreements on both sides.
The chance of military conflict on the Korean Peninsula remains very high and there is no clear path to resolution of the situation.
India’s Look East policy, initially aimed at reconnecting India with Asia’s economic globalization, has since evolved into a comprehensive regional strategy with political and military dimensions. As the United States rebalances to Asia, however, India faces new dilemmas.
As cyberspace has emerged as a new frontier for geopolitics, states have become entrepreneurial in their sponsorship, deployment, and exploitation of hackers as proxies to project power.
Cyber, like the nuclear field, is now a leading means through which international relations play out today.