Levant

  • Arab Governments Strike Back

    Bahey Hassan
    August 19, 2008

    If some of the Group of Eight (G-8) countries had not found some resolve at the final moments of the concluding session of the Forum for the Future in November 2005, the initiative might have been buried in Manama. There is still danger of the initiative being terminated by Moscow, which in July will host the 2006 G-8 summit, before the third Forum meeting in Jordan takes place later this year.

  • What Happened to the Fatah Young Guard?

    Ben Fishman, Mohammad Yaghi
    August 19, 2008

    As much as Hamas's landslide victory in the January 25 Palestinian legislative elections was a triumph for the Islamist movement, it was also a crushing defeat for the younger generation of Fatah leaders who had hoped the election would facilitate a leadership transition in the long-ruling Palestinian national liberation movement.

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  • Herculean Tasks Ahead in Iraq

    Raad Alkadiri
    August 19, 2008

    The next few weeks promise to be monumental ones in Iraq's modern history. With the December election successfully completed, Iraqi leaders must now focus on making decisions that will determine not just how the country is run over the next four years, but what Iraq will look like in the longer term and whether it can avoid disintegrating into a bloody civil war.

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  • Progress of the “Freedom Strategy” in the Middle East

    Tamara Cofman Wittes
    August 19, 2008

    President Bush's goal of advancing Arab democracy faced skepticism from the moment he first enunciated it in November 2003, and with good reason. A few months after the invasion of Iraq and amidst continued Israeli-Palestinian violence, the notion that aspiring Arab democrats would look to the United States for support seemed farfetched.

  • Barcelona Process and the New Neighborhood Policy

    Haizam Amirah-Fernández
    August 19, 2008

    When the European Union (EU) launched the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP, or Barcelona Process) in 1995 with the participation of 15 of its southern neighbors, the declared objective was to create a “zone of peace, stability, and security in the Mediterranean.” A wide range of economic, political, and cultural measures was foreseen, following in part the Helsinki model of 1975.

  • Professionalism or Factionalism in the New Palestinian Government?

    Hossam Ezzedine
    August 19, 2008

    Palestinians have been hoping that Hamas and Fatah will live up to their announced agreement that the government of national unity under formation would not concern itself with negotiations with Israel, which were supposed to remain the purview of President Mahmoud Abbas in his capacity as leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

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  • Al Assad's Reform Balance Sheet

    Sami Moubayed
    August 19, 2008

    As Syrian president Bashar Al Assad approaches the end of his first term in office, there is much debate on whether or not he has succeeded as a reformer. He is credited with establishing private universities, banks, and media.

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  • EU Policies towards Hamas Frustrate Policy Aims

    Muriel Asseburg
    August 19, 2008

    The European Union approach towards the government led by the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) formed in March 2006 has been one of isolation; the EU and its member states have refused dialogue, at least on an official level, and have withdrawn budget support.

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  • 2006 Lebanon War: Regional Conflicts as Moments of Truth

    August 18, 2008

    The Lebanon war of 2006 changed the political environment in the Arab Middle East at two levels. The first was temporary and receded after the thirty-three day war had ended. The second, however, was structural and rooted in the reality of Arab societies, where the practices of ruling elites and opposition movements reveal the fragility of opportunities for democratic change.

  • Hizbollah's Enduring Myth

    Emile El-Hokayem
    August 18, 2008

    Serious thinking about reforming Lebanon's fragile and inefficient system of governance has been among the casualties of the recent war. Political reform has never topped the agenda of Lebanon's leaders, including the one actor most people believe would benefit most: Hizbollah.

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  • The Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Reform and Peace are Interdependent

    Philip Wilcox
    August 18, 2008

    Since 2002, U.S. diplomacy toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been constrained by Israel's doctrine that there is no Palestinian partner for peace. According to this concept—accepted by the United States—until Palestinians halt violence toward Israel and reform their internal politics, there can be no peace talks.

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  • A Balancing Act that Keeps Political Change at Bay in Jordan

    Rana Sabbagh-Gargour
    August 18, 2008

    For the sixth time this year, Human Rights Watch is questioning Jordan's commitment to abolish provisions in its penal code used solely to silence opposition figures. In November, Adnan Abu Odeh, former head of the Royal Court was investigated for allegedly insulting the king and inciting sectarian strife during televised remarks.

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  • How Weak is Hamas?

    Jarrett Blanc
    August 18, 2008

    Negotiations for a unity government between Fatah and Hamas are the fruit of international pressure, which has forced Hamas to consider sacrificing some of its formal authority within the Palestinian Authority (PA) despite the fact that the Islamic movement and its allies hold 77 out of 132 seats in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC).

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  • Time to Get Serious about Governance in Kurdistan

    Bilal Wahab
    August 18, 2008

    Virtually autonomous since 1992, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) in Iraq has followed an uneven path on the road to good governance. Six months have passed since the formation of the current united Kurdish cabinet. While Kurdistan has been increasingly stable and secure, its potential for accountability and clean government has yet to be fulfilled.

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  • Avenues for Reform after Lebanon's Devastation

    August 18, 2008

    The summer 2006 war between Hizbollah and Israel wreaked terrible destruction on Lebanon. It set Lebanon back years economically, costing roughly $7 billion, or 30 percent of GDP. At the same time, the war and UN Security Council Resolution 1701 have created new possibilities for advancing political reform.

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  • Iraq: U.S. Determination without Policy

    August 18, 2008

    The situation in Iraq is bleak and policy is adrift. Constant changes in the nature of the conflict have undermined all measures put in place by the Bush administration. While showing great determination to stay in Iraq until the country is stable, President Bush does not have a policy to address the country's multiple conflicts.

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  • Palestine: Social Impact of the Islamist-Secularist Struggle

    Mahdi Hadi
    August 18, 2008

    The changing political balance in Palestine —from domination by the secular nationalist Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) to effective challenge for leadership by the Islamist Resistance Movement (Hamas)—can be seen not only at the ballot box, but also in the daily lives of Palestinians.

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  • The Triumph of Politics over Professionalism in the Arab World

    Moataz El Fegiery
    August 18, 2008

    Increasing calls for media independence are part of the new political reality in the Arab world; such calls have been particularly strong regarding media coverage of elections.

  • Reformist Islam: How Gray are the Gray Zones?

    Abdul Abul Futouh
    August 18, 2008

    Abdul Monem Abul Futouh, a member of the Guidance Bureau of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, offered his comments on “Islamist Movements and the Democratic Process in the Arab World: Exploring the Gray Zones,” by Nathan Brown, Amr Hamzawy, and Marina Ottaway (Carnegie Paper No. 67, March 2006).

  • Hypocrisy, Principles, and Reform in the Middle East

    Steven Cook
    August 18, 2008

    Observers have criticized the United States strongly for its unwillingness to recognize the Hamas government in Palestine, as well as for appearing to back away from supporting reform in Egypt after the Muslim Brotherhood's strong showing in 2005 elections.

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