Russia’s September 2015 aerial intervention in Syria would not have succeeded without a parallel Iranian intervention on the ground.
If negotiations fail to overcome the divide between rebel factions, the East Ghouta may be heading for a permanent internal split.
Tensions among rebel groups in Syria’s East Ghouta threaten to destabilize the enclave and perhaps even the broader Syrian rebellion.
Rebels in Syria’s East Ghouta enclave have established a unique system of coordination and governance under the auspices of one of Syria’s most powerful rebel factions.
The rapid depreciation of the Syrian pound has caused a further decline in the living standards of ordinary Syrians and threatens the continued functioning of what remains of the state.
President Bashar al-Assad’s advance into Palmyra has redrawn Syria’s military battlefield and may accelerate a shift in the political landscape of the conflict as well.
Five years into the conflict, a credible path toward peace has yet to emerge in Syria.
Russia’s announcement of its withdrawal from Syria has surprised the international community and raised questions about the underlying calculations of the decision and the effect it may have on Syria’s future.
Choices in peacemaking terminology are often based on subtle differences and the political circumstances of various parties, particularly in the Syrian conflict.
A tenuous ceasefire has taken hold in Syria, but allegations of breaches, disparate motivations of outside actors, and local politics among rebel groups have already imperiled the agreement.
Aron Lund is a nonresident associate in the Middle East Program and the author of several reports and books on the Syrian opposition movement.
Syria in Crisis provides analysis of the civil war and its impact on the region. Edited by Aron Lund, a researcher who has published extensively on the Syrian opposition, it brings together Carnegie and outside experts.
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