Nuclear Weapons

    • Regional Insight

    Pakistan’s Nuclear Use Doctrine

    • Sadia Tasleem
    • July 01, 2016

    A close look at official statements, interviews, and developments related to nuclear weapons provide substantive clues about the contours of Pakistan’s nuclear doctrine in practice

    • Regional Insight

    Pakistan’s Nuclear Force Structure in 2025

    • Naeem Salik
    • July 01, 2016

    Pakistan’s nuclear posture and the size of Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal have been subjects of considerable speculation and debate since Pakistan first tested nuclear weapons, and increasingly so in recent years.

    • Regional Insight

    Pakistan’s Tactical Nuclear Weapons and Their Impact on Stability

    • Mansoor Ahmed
    • July 01, 2016

    In the current environment, the introduction of tactical nuclear weapons by Pakistan in response to India’s limited war strategy is only a means of reinforcing deterrence and enhancing stability at the higher level of conflict by inducing instability at the lower levels.

    • Regional Insight

    India’s Evolving Civil-Military Institutions in an Operational Nuclear Context

    • Gaurav Kampani
    • July 01, 2016

    Unless India’s conventional and nuclear commands closely coordinate their operations planning, an Indian nuclear response threatens either to be unsuccessful or to escalate out of control.

    • Regional Insight

    China’s Sea-Based Nuclear Deterrent

    China has a choice to make to ensure that its sea-based nuclear capability can be a helpful addition to its existing nuclear deterrent without destabilizing regional security.

    • Regional Insight

    China’s Perceptions of India as a Nuclear Weapons Power

    Given the substantial tensions concerning the unresolved Sino-Indian border issue, China’s perception of India as a nuclear weapons power is important not only for the future evolution of the international nuclear regime but also for the ongoing Sino-Indian security situation.

    • Regional Insight

    India’s Nuclear Force Structure 2025

    • Gurmeet Kanwal
    • June 30, 2016

    India’s nuclear deterrence policy should work in parallel along twin tracks: continuing to enhance the quality of India’s nuclear deterrence while simultaneously working to achieve total nuclear disarmament in the shortest possible time frame.

    • Regional Insight

    India’s Nuclear Doctrine Debate

    • Rajesh Rajagopalan
    • June 30, 2016

    Though there continue to be significant disagreements within the Indian strategic community about many elements of nuclear doctrine, the debate no longer produces new ideas about how to deal with the most pressing dilemma that New Delhi faces: countering Pakistan’s tactical nuclear weapons.

    • Regional Insight

    China’s Nuclear Doctrine: Debates and Evolution

    • Xia Liping
    • June 30, 2016

    At present, there are ongoing debates in China about the future of China’s nuclear doctrine. The way these debates are eventually resolved will have important consequences for the future of China’s doctrine and arsenal.

    • Regional Insight

    India and Ballistic Missile Defense: Furthering a Defensive Deterrent

    • Balraj Nagal
    • June 30, 2016

    Limited ballistic missile defense remains vital for India’s effort to maintain strategic stability.

Carnegie Experts on
Nuclear Weapons

  • expert thumbnail - Acton
    James M. Acton
    Co-director
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Acton is co-director of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment. A physicist by training, Acton specializes in nonproliferation, deterrence, and disarmament.
  • expert thumbnail - Adebahr
    Cornelius Adebahr
    Associate
    Europe Program
    Adebahr is an associate in the Europe Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington, DC. His research focuses on European foreign policy.
  • expert thumbnail - Alagappa
    Muthiah Alagappa
    Nonresident Senior Associate
    Asia Program
    Alagappa, a nonresident senior associate in the Asia Program, was the first holder of the Tun Hussein Onn Chair in international studies at the Institute of Strategic and International Studies in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. His research focuses primarily on Asian security, the political legitimacy of governments, civil society and political change, and the political role of the military in Asia.
  • expert thumbnail - Arbatov
    Alexey Arbatov
    Scholar in Residence
    Nonproliferation Program
    Moscow Center
    Arbatov, a former member of the State Duma, is the author of a number of books and numerous articles and papers on issues of global security, strategic stability, disarmament, and Russian military reform.
  • expert thumbnail - Cammack
    Perry Cammack
    Associate
    Middle East Program
    Perry Cammack is an associate in the Middle East Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he focuses on long-term regional trends and their implications for American foreign policy.
  • expert thumbnail - Chubin
    Shahram Chubin
    Nonresident Senior Associate
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Chubin, who is based in Geneva, focuses his research on nonproliferation, terrorism, and Middle East security issues. He was director of studies at the Geneva Centre for Security Policy, Switzerland, from 1996 to 2009.
  • expert thumbnail - Dalton
    Toby Dalton
    Co-director
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Dalton is the co-director of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment. An expert on nonproliferation and nuclear energy, his research focuses on cooperative nuclear security initiatives and the management of nuclear challenges in South Asia and East Asia.
  • expert thumbnail - Dvorkin
    Vladimir Dvorkin
    Distinguished Military Fellow
    Nonproliferation Program
    Moscow Center
    Major General Dvorkin (retired) is a distinguished military fellow in the Carnegie Moscow Center’s Nonproliferation Program.
  • expert thumbnail - Gabuev
    Alexander Gabuev
    Senior Associate and Chair
    Russia in the Asia-Pacific Program
    Moscow Center
    Gabuev is a senior associate and the chair of the Russia in the Asia-Pacific Program at the Carnegie Moscow Center.
  • expert thumbnail - Goldschmidt
    Pierre Goldschmidt
    Nonresident Senior Associate
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Goldschmidt is a nonresident senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment.
  • expert thumbnail - Hibbs
    Mark Hibbs
    Senior Associate
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Hibbs is a Germany-based senior associate in Carnegie’s Nuclear Policy Program. His areas of expertise are nuclear verification and safeguards, multilateral nuclear trade policy, international nuclear cooperation, and nonproliferation arrangements.
  • expert thumbnail - Kassenova
    Togzhan Kassenova
    Associate
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Kassenova is an associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment.
  • expert thumbnail - Kozhanov
    Nikolay Kozhanov
    Nonresident scholar
    Foreign and Security Policy Program
    Moscow Center
    Kozhanov is a nonresident scholar at the Carnegie Moscow Center and a contributing expert to the Moscow-based Institute of the Middle East.
  • expert thumbnail - Kurokawa
    Tomoko Kurokawa
    Nonresident Scholar
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Kurokawa is a nonresident scholar in the Carnegie Nuclear Policy Program.
  • expert thumbnail - Lee
    Chung Min Lee
    Nonresident Senior Associate
    Chung Min Lee is a nonresident senior associate in Carnegie’s Asia Program.
  • expert thumbnail - Lehne
    Stefan Lehne
    Visiting Scholar
    Carnegie Europe
    Lehne is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels, where his research focuses on the post–Lisbon Treaty development of the European Union’s foreign policy, with a specific focus on relations between the EU and member states.
  • expert thumbnail - Levite
    Ariel (Eli) Levite
    Nonresident Senior Associate
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Levite was the principal deputy director general for policy at the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission from 2002 to 2007.
  • expert thumbnail - Bin
    Li Bin
    Senior Associate
    Nuclear Policy Program and Asia Program
    Li is a senior associate working jointly in the Nuclear Policy Program and Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Mansour
    Renad Mansour
    El-Erian Fellow
    Middle East Center
    Mansour is an El-Erian fellow at the Carnegie Middle East Center, where his research focuses on Iraq, Iran, and Kurdish affairs.
  • expert thumbnail - Mathews
    Jessica Tuchman Mathews
    Distinguished Fellow
    Mathews is a distinguished fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. She served as Carnegie’s president for 18 years.
  • expert thumbnail - Mohan
    C. Raja Mohan
    Director
    Carnegie India
    A leading analyst of India’s foreign policy, Mohan is also an expert on South Asian security, great-power relations in Asia, and arms control.
  • expert thumbnail - Perkovich
    George Perkovich
    Vice President for Studies
    Perkovich works primarily on nuclear strategy and nonproliferation issues, and on South Asian security.
  • expert thumbnail - Ryu
    Rexon Ryu
    Senior Adviser
    Ryu is senior adviser at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he leads an initiative focused on the intersection of diplomacy, technology, and innovation.
  • expert thumbnail - Sadjadpour
    Karim Sadjadpour
    Senior Associate
    Middle East Program
    Sadjadpour, a leading researcher on Iran, has conducted dozens of interviews with senior Iranian officials and hundreds with Iranian intellectuals, clerics, dissidents, paramilitaries, businessmen, students, activists, and youth, among others.
  • expert thumbnail - Schoff
    James L. Schoff
    Senior Associate
    Asia Program
    Schoff is a senior associate in the Carnegie Asia Program. His research focuses on U.S.-Japanese relations and regional engagement, Japanese politics and security, and the private sector’s role in Japanese policymaking.
  • expert thumbnail - Schulte
    Paul Schulte
    Nonresident Senior Associate
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Schulte is a nonresident senior associate in the Carnegie Nuclear Policy Program, where his research focuses on the future of deterrence, nuclear strategy, nuclear nonproliferation, cybersecurity, and their political implications.
  • expert thumbnail - Swaine
    Michael Swaine
    Senior Associate
    Asia Program
    Swaine is a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and one of the most prominent American analysts in Chinese security studies.
  • expert thumbnail - Tellis
    Ashley J. Tellis
    Senior Associate
    South Asia Program
    Tellis is a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace specializing in international security, defense, and Asian strategic issues.
  • expert thumbnail - Topychkanov
    Petr Topychkanov
    Associate
    Nonproliferation Program
    Moscow Center
    Topychkanov is an associate in the Carnegie Moscow Center’s Nonproliferation Program.
  • expert thumbnail - Trenin
    Dmitri Trenin
    Director
    Moscow Center
    Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center, has been with the center since its inception. He also chairs the research council and the Foreign and Security Policy Program.
  • expert thumbnail - Ülgen
    Sinan Ülgen
    Visiting Scholar
    Carnegie Europe
    Ülgen is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels, where his research focuses on Turkish foreign policy, nuclear policy, cyberpolicy, and transatlantic relations.
  • expert thumbnail - Volpe
    Tristan Volpe
    Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Tristan Volpe is a Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow and an associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where his research focuses on the use of nuclear technology as a bargaining chip in world politics.
  • expert thumbnail - Wehrey
    Frederic Wehrey
    Senior Associate
    Middle East Program
    Wehrey’s research focuses on security affairs, civil-military relations, and identity politics in North Africa and the Gulf.
  • expert thumbnail - Wright
    Nicholas Wright
    Nonresident Associate
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Wright is a nonresident associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment. His research draws on his background in neuroscience to explore political decisionmaking in economics and nuclear security.
  • expert thumbnail - Yoshida
    Fumihiko Yoshida
    Visiting Scholar
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Fumihiko Yoshida is a visiting scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Zhao
    Tong Zhao
    Associate
    Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy
    Tong Zhao is an associate in Carnegie’s Nuclear Policy Program based at the Carnegie–Tsinghua Center for Global Policy.

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