The shallow state is in many respects the antithesis of the deep state. It actively eschews experience, knowledge, relationships, insight, craft, special skills, tradition, and shared values and in fact celebrates its ignorance of and disdain for those things.
The new U.S. administration needs to send strong signals to forces on all sides of the Libya conflict, as well as their foreign patrons, and make clear that a political settlement presents the only viable path out of the chaos.
Joseph Bahout is a visiting scholar in Carnegie’s Middle East Program. His research focuses on political developments in Lebanon and Syria, regional spillover from the Syrian crisis, and identity politics across the region.
Associate Fellow Democracy and Rule of Law Program
Saskia Brechenmacher is an associate fellow in Carnegie’s Democracy and Rule of Law Program, where her research focuses on civil society, governance, and institutional reform in post-conflict societies and hybrid political regimes.
Perry Cammack is a fellow in the Middle East Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he focuses on long-term regional trends and their implications for American foreign policy.
Sarah Chayes is internationally recognized for her innovative thinking on corruption and its implications. Her work explores how severe corruption can help prompt such crises as terrorism, revolutions and their violent aftermaths, and environmental degradation.
Lehne is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels, where his research focuses on the post–Lisbon Treaty development of the European Union’s foreign policy, with a specific focus on relations between the EU and member states.
Scholar in Residence Religion, Society, and Security Program Moscow Center
Malashenko is the chair of the Carnegie Moscow Center’s Religion, Society, and Security Program. He also taught at the Higher School of Economics from 2007 to 2008 and was a professor at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations from 2000 to 2006.
Sayigh is a senior fellow at the Carnegie Middle East Center in Beirut, where his work focuses on the Syrian crisis, the political role of Arab armies, security sector transformation in Arab transitions, the reinvention of authoritarianism, and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and peace process.
Paul Stronski is a senior fellow in Carnegie’s Russia and Eurasia Program, where his research focuses on the relationship between Russia and neighboring countries in Central Asia and the South Caucasus.
Shivnath Thukral is the managing director of Carnegie India responsible for the center’s outreach and maximizing its impact. He also oversees operations, including coordination with Carnegie’s global network and fundraising.