Cyber, like the nuclear field, is now a leading means through which international relations play out today.
The story of Karim Baratov and Alexsey Belan provides insight into proxy relationships between the Russian state and hackers.
Many states are employing ostensibly independent hackers as proxies to project influence both domestically and overseas.
Many states outsource their cyber operations to non-state actors, with varying degrees of control over their actions. The crisis in Ukraine is a perfect example of this phenomenon.
To understand how Iran uses cyber proxies, it’s important to understand how Tehran thinks about cyber security in the first place.
Authoritarian governments are seamlessly blending offline and online tactics into hybrid repression.
As cyberspace has emerged as the new frontier for geopolitics, states have become entrepreneurial in their sponsorship, deployment, and exploitation of hackers as proxies to project power.
Attempts to rein in the internet industry in democratic countries will show who really is in charge.
The four-decade-long U.S.-Iran cold war has increasingly moved into cyberspace. Tehran has become increasingly adept at conducting cyber espionage and disruptive attacks against opponents at home and abroad.
Incidents involving Iran have been among the most sophisticated, costly, and consequential attacks in the history of the internet.