No immigration issue today is more controversial than the line dividing the rights and responsibilities between citizens and resident aliens. The author cuts through the partisan rhetoric that has inflamed public debate over this issue to provide a lucid and carefully nuanced analysis of the legal norms that have guided U.S. citizenship policy. To clarify the fundamental issues at stake in this matter, he sets out three models for understanding the alternative directives available for policy makers. He advances his strongest case for a model that promotes the integration of resident aliens as prospective full citizens