Dr. V.S. Arunachalam presented “Nuclear Power and Energy Security in India” at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace on September 12, 2005. He discussed the demand for nuclear energy in India from a technical and economic perspective and provided an Indian assessment of the recent U.S.-India civilian nuclear agreement.
From 1982 onwards, and for over a decade, Dr. V. S. Arunachalam served five Prime Ministers and ten Defense Ministers of India, including Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi and Narasimha Rao, as their Defense Scientific Advisor and as Secretary, Department of Defense Research and Development. Prior to these appointments, he worked as a scientist at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center and at the National Aeronautical Laboratory at Bangalore, India, before joining the Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, as its director in 1975. 

Dr. Arunachalam currently advises the Indian government on the definition, assessment and review of a number of major technological and societal programs such as optical fiber communications for India, electric power, scientific and technological missions to eradicate illiteracy, infant mortality and other deprivations, and improving graduate education in engineering. He is a Distinguished Service Professor in the Departments of Engineering and Public Policy, Materials Science and Engineering and the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He is the founder of Centre for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP), a policy-intense R&D center in Bangalore that will work in collaboration with the Department of Engineering & Public Policy of Carnegie Mellon.