In the wake of White House visits by the presidents of both nations, continuing regional violence and the resurgence of the Taliban threatens to undermine the fragile peace between Afghanistan and Pakistan—two states torn between necessary cooperation in the War on Terror and tense disputes over territory and the influence of Islamic constituencies. How has the relationship between these two regional powers changed since the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States, and what roles can we expect them to play in the future?

In a new Carnegie Paper, Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations in the Post-9/11 Era, Visiting Scholar Frédéric Grare provides insight into the causes of conflict between the national governments, offers a view of Afghanistan from a Pakistani perspective, and proposes a series of solutions for the troubled region. To read this Carnegie Paper, visit:

Grare argues that while the relationship between the two nations is historically marked by suspicion and conflict, the battle over regional authority must now incorporate the demands of the United States and the War on Terror, making cooperation a necessity. Hesitant to appear the weaker country on fighting terrorism, both Afghanistan and Pakistan struggle to balance their regional objectives with the need to maintain a vital strategic alliance with the U.S.

Normalizing relations between the two countries is vital for regional security, but proves a daunting task. Grare offers policy recommendations that could create a lasting peace, including the long-term deployment of international forces in Afghanistan, a compromise over the contentious Durand line, and addressing concerns over perceived links between Afghanistan and India.

Direct link to PDF:

Frédéric Grare is a visiting scholar with the Carnegie Endowment. A leading expert and writer on South Asia, Grare served most recently in the French Embassy in Pakistan and, from 1999 to 2003, in New Delhi as director of the Centre for Social Sciences and Humanities. Grare edited the volume India, China, Russia: Intricacies of an Asian Triangle

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing cooperation between nations and promoting active international engagement by the United States.

Press Contact: Trent Perrotto, 202/939-2372,