Seven states are now commercial suppliers of nuclear power plants to the international market—and this list is only likely to grow. What implications does this multinationalization of nuclear industry have for bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements? Should suppliers agree to use such agreements to establish minimum international standards for nuclear energy cooperation, and specifically to bolster nonproliferation, nuclear security, and nuclear safety? More pointedly, with the UAE having signed up to a “gold standard” by declaring it will forego enrichment and reprocessing on a unilateral basis, should other states be encouraged to do so too? 

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