Over the course of the last decade, debates on IAEA safeguards have become increasingly politicized. Several states with significant nuclear programs have refused to adopt the Additional Protocol. Others object to the IAEA’s development of a so-called State Level safeguards concept and to its use of information obtained by member states’ intelligence agencies. What are the causes of the political tensions surrounding the development and application of IAEA safeguards? What steps should members states take to mitigate political tensions? And what steps should the agency take in order to strengthen global confidence in the safeguards system?

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