China is slowly modernizing its nuclear arsenal, in particular by deploying new mobile, land-based missiles and by building a fleet of submarines to carry a newly developed sea-launched ballistic missile. It has also tested various long-range, high-precision conventional weapons and appears to have tested multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle technology. What are the drivers—technical, bureaucratic, doctrinal—of these developments? What strategic end-state is China seeking? And what do these developments mean for stability in the region?

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