Tensions in the global nuclear order are rising. The sources are many, including disagreement among states about disarmament and nonproliferation priorities, regional insecurity that both contributes to proliferation concerns and increases the salience of nuclear deterrence, disenchantment about the lack of progress toward disarmament, and questions about integrating nuclear outlier states into the order. The new Carnegie report Perspectives on the Evolving Nuclear Order asks what role ‘middle ground,’ or emerging, nuclear states—particularly Argentina, Brazil, China, India, and Pakistan—will play in the global debate on these issues.

Debak Das, Mariana Nascimento Plum, and Tong Zhao discussed Indian, Brazilian, and Chinese views on the nuclear order. Carnegie’s Toby Dalton moderated. Immediately following, Adam Scheinman commented on themes presented in the first panel in the context of his experience leading the U.S. delegation to the 2015 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. Carnegie’s Togzhan Kassenova moderated.


2:30 to 3:00 p.m.
Registration and Seating

3:00 to 4:15 p.m.
Perspectives From India, Brazil and China on the State of the Nuclear Order 
Debak Das, Mariana Nascimento Plum, Tong Zhao
Moderator: Toby Dalton

4:15 to 5:00 p.m.
An Evolving Nuclear Order? Observations From an NPT Ambassador 
Adam Scheinman
Moderator: Togzhan Kassenova


Debak Das

Debak Das is pursuing his PhD in political science in Cornell University’s Department of Government.

Mariana Nascimento Plum

Mariana Nascimento Plum is a research coordinator at the Brazilian Army Strategic Studies Center.

Tong Zhao

Tong Zhao is an associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy in Beijing.

Adam M. Scheinman

Adam M. Scheinman is special representative of the president for Nuclear Nonproliferation in the Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation at the U.S. Department of State.

Toby Dalton

Toby Dalton is co-director of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

Togzhan Kassenova

Togzhan Kassenova is an associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.