Articles I and II of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty contain states’ fundamental nonproliferation obligations and are intended to outlaw the further spread of nuclear weapons without impeding the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Despite a remarkable track record of success, however, these articles do not explicitly demarcate the boundary between peaceful and military uses. Has this omission actually been a problem? If so, is it possible to demarcate that boundary more clearly? Might new technologies, such as additive manufacturing, further blur it?


Tristan Volpe, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace


Patricia Flor, German Federal Foreign Office
Kazuko Hikawa, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Li Bin, Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy