Articles I and II of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty contain states’ fundamental nonproliferation obligations and are intended to outlaw the further spread of nuclear weapons without impeding the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Despite a remarkable track record of success, however, these articles do not explicitly demarcate the boundary between peaceful and military uses. Has this omission actually been a problem? If so, is it possible to demarcate that boundary more clearly? Might new technologies, such as additive manufacturing, further blur it?
Tristan Volpe, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace