Countries planning to build their first nuclear power reactors face the challenge of developing domestic regulatory regimes for nuclear security and nonproliferation. Compounding this challenge, there are no universally accepted standards for nuclear security. Furthermore, in terms of nonproliferation, the additional protocol is optional even while there are significant variations in domestic material accountancy and control systems. What measures should nuclear newcomers take to mitigate nuclear security and proliferation risks? What nuclear security and nonproliferation standards should they follow? Can or should the governments of vendors that export reactors to nuclear newcomers—particularly Russia, South Korea, and perhaps in the future, China—do more to encourage newcomers to adopt high standards? Should recipients’ adherence to stringent safeguards and security practices be a condition of supply? 


Togzhan Kassenova, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace


Nilsu Gören, University of Maryland
Francesca Giovannini, American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
Laura Holgate, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School
Ta Minh Tuan, Vietnam Fatherland Front