Article IV of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty requires “the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and…information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.” Many technology holders believe that in enacting this provision they are entitled—indeed, are required—to balance the benefits of cooperation against the risks of proliferation. Would-be recipients, by contrast, often argue that restrictions on cooperation are excessive and contravene both the spirit and the letter of the treaty. What restrictions on trade are reasonable for technology holders to impose? Are existing national and multilateral export control policies too restrictive? Or not restrictive enough? Can suppliers and recipients cooperate to enable fuller nuclear exchange in ways that do not exacerbate proliferation risks?


Caroline Jorant, SDRI Consulting


Layla Dawood, State University of Rio de Janeiro
Ariel (Eli) Levite, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Tom Moore, Independent Consultant