Table of Contents

Project Participants

We are grateful to participants in a transpacific workshop on “Korea and the Future of Data,” and especially to those who offered helpful comments on drafts of the chapters in this volume. And we express our thanks to the Korea Foundation for its generous support of this project. 

Fiona Alexander
American University

Alexander Botting
Venable, LLP

Andre Boysen

Michael Daniel
Cyber Threat Alliance

Clara Gillispie
National Bureau of Asian Research

Jeremy Grant
Venable, LLP

Minjeong Kim
Korea Foundation

James Larson
Stonybrook University, Korea

Malcolm Lee
Malcolm Lee Associates, LLC

Chung Min Lee
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Sarah Mack
Georgetown University

James Miller
American Chamber of Commerce in Japan

Eli Noam
Columbia University

Kyung Sin “KS” Park
Korea University

Samuel Visner
MITRE Corporation

About the Authors


Evan A. Feigenbaum is a vice president for studies at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he oversees research in Washington, Beijing, and New Delhi on a dynamic region encompassing both East Asia and South Asia. He was also the 2019–2020 James R. Schlesinger Distinguished Professor at the Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia, where he is now a practitioner senior fellow.

Initially an academic with a PhD in Chinese politics from Stanford University, Feigenbaum’s career has spanned government service, think tanks, the private sector, and three major regions of Asia. From 2001 to 2009, he served at the U.S. State Department as deputy assistant secretary of state for South Asia (2007–2009), deputy assistant secretary of state for Central Asia (2006–2007), member of the policy planning staff with principal responsibility for East Asia and the Pacific (2001–2006), and an adviser on China to deputy secretary of state Robert B. Zoellick, with whom he worked closely in the development of the U.S.-China senior dialogue. Following government service, Feigenbaum worked in the private and nonprofit sectors. He was vice chairman of the Paulson Institute at the University of Chicago and the co-founder of MacroPolo, its digital venture on the Chinese economy; head of the Asia practice at the markets consultancy Eurasia Group; and senior fellow for Asia at the Council on Foreign Relations.

Before government service, he worked at Harvard University as lecturer on government in the faculty of arts and sciences and as executive director of the Asia-Pacific Security Initiative and program chair of the Chinese Security Studies Program in the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and was lecturer of national security affairs at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. He is the author of three books and monographs, including The United States in the New Asia and China’s Techno-Warriors: National Security and Strategic Competition From the Nuclear to the Information Age.


Michael Nelson is a senior fellow in the Carnegie Endowment’s Technology and International Affairs Program, which helps decisionmakers understand and address the impacts of emerging technologies, including digital technologies, biotechnology, and artificial intelligence. Prior to joining Carnegie, he started the global public policy office for Cloudflare, a startup that has improved the performance and security of more than 10 million websites around the world. Nelson has also served as a principal technology policy strategist in Microsoft’s Technology Policy Group and before that was a senior technology and telecommunications analyst with Bloomberg Government. In addition, Nelson has been teaching courses and doing research on the future of the internet, cyber policy, technology policy, innovation policy, and e-government in the Communication, Culture, and Technology Program at Georgetown University.

Before joining the Georgetown faculty, Nelson was director of internet technology and strategy at IBM, where he managed a team helping define and implement IBM’s next generation internet strategy. He has served as chairman of the Information, Communication, and Computing Section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, serves as a trustee of the Institute for International Communications, and was selected to be a “Global Leader of Tomorrow” by the World Economic Forum. From 1988 to 1993, he served as a professional staff member for the Senate’s Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space and was the lead Senate staffer for the High-Performance Computing Act. In 1993, he joined then vice president Al Gore at the White House and worked with president Bill Clinton’s science adviser on issues relating to the Global Information Infrastructure, including telecommunications policy, information technology, encryption, electronic commerce, and information policy.


Jang GyeHyun is a research professor at the School of Cybersecurity at Korea University. He earned his PhD in information security and a BE in industrial engineering from Korea University. Jang has contributed to numerous cybersecurity-related research projects in Korea. He has advised on Korea’s national cybersecurity policy as a participant in research projects for the Presidential Advisory Council on Science and Technology, the Office of National Security in the Office of the President of the Republic of Korea (Cheongwadae), the Ministry of National Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and other ministries and agencies. He also has been involved in other research projects from institutions such as the National Security Research Institution and the Korea Internet and Security Agency. Jang lectures at Korea University and works as a mentor in the “Best of the Best” program, a training program for Korean cybersecurity talent. He has also published various articles in Korean journals on cybersecurity in the context of national security, security policies, and other issues, including online authentication.


Lim Jong-in is a professor at the Graduate School of Information Protection and the Department of Cyber Defense at Korea University. In 2015, he served as the special adviser on cybersecurity to the Korean president. He currently chairs the Digital Investigation Advisory Committee of the Supreme Prosecutors’ Office and is also the chairman of the Financial Security Advisory Committee at the Financial Security Institute. He has been president of the Korea Association of Chief Information Security Officers and chairman of the Board of Academia for Information Security at Korea University’s School of Information Security, where he has been a professor for thirty-three years. He holds three degrees from Korea University, including a doctorate in algebra.


So Jeong Kim is a principal researcher for the National Security Research Institute. Since joining in 2004, she now leads the cybersecurity policy team and provides recommendations on cybersecurity policy and regulatory issues. She was involved in drafting South Korea’s National Cyber Security Strategy, published in April 2019. She was also involved in the 4th and 5th UN Group of Governmental Experts as an adviser, and the MERIDIAN process as an adviser and organizer. Her main research area is national cybersecurity policy, specifically, international norm-setting processes, confidence-building measures, critical information infrastructure protection, law and regulations, and cybersecurity evaluation development.


Sunha Bae is a senior researcher for the National Security Research Institute. She received an MS degree in electrical engineering from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology in 2009. From 2009 to 2012, Bae worked for LIGNex1 in Korea’s defense industry as a software engineer on a missile system, and from 2013 to 2014 for Doosan Heavy Industry as a software engineer on a power plant control system. In 2015, Bae joined the National Security Research Institute of Korea to conduct research on national cybersecurity policy. Bae’s current areas of research interest are critical infrastructure cybersecurity strategy, and the assessment of national cybersecurity capability and cyber attack severity.


Nohyoung Park has been a professor of law at Korea University Law School since 1990, where he has also been dean of the Law School and vice president. His background is in international economic law focusing on the WTO, but he also studies cybersecurity and data privacy, and negotiation and mediation. He is currently director of the Cyber Law Centre at Korea University, president of International Cyber Law Studies in Korea, and president of the Korean Society of Mediation Studies. He has advised governments and businesses on various international legal matters, including participating in the negotiation of Korea’s first free trade agreement (Korea-Chile) and by attending the meetings of the fourth and fifth UN Groups of Government Experts between 2014 and 2017. He has pursued international research cooperation with various academic institutions in China, the EU, Japan, Russia, and the United States over cybersecurity, data privacy, digital trade, mediation, the Belt and Road Initiative, and the Nagoya Protocol.


Kyung Sin “KS” Park is a professor of law at Korea University. He served as a commissioner at the Korea Communication Standards Commission, a presidentially appointed internet content regulation body (2011–2014), and as a member of the National Media Commission, an advisory body to the National Assembly set up to examine the bills allowing media cross-ownership and other media and internet regulations. He is executive director for both Open Net Korea and PSPD Law—part of People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy, a Seoul-based nongovernmental organization that promotes popular participation in government decisionmaking—which have pursued and won several high-profile legal cases and pushed for legislative action in the areas of freedom of speech, privacy, net neutrality, web accessibility, digital innovation, and intellectual property.