While it has been known since early 2004 that the illicit proliferation network headed by A.Q. Khan of Pakistan supplied the nuclear programs of Iran, North Korea, and Libya, certain questions have not yet been resolved.
Differing views between Russia and NATO on issues such as missile defense and Georgian membership in NATO should not inhibit cooperation on steps toward further nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation.
The Nuclear Suppliers Group faces a host of challenges ranging from questions about its credibility and future membership to its relationship to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and other multilateral arrangements.
The Nuclear Suppliers Group, which is responsible for establishing guidelines that govern the transfer of nuclear-related materials, equipment, and technology, faces a number of serious challenges.
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty may be the cornerstone of international law relating to nuclear weapons, but disagreements over its meaning abound.
Taiwan is effectively a legal black hole in the realm of nonproliferation cooperation. The international community needs to find a way to ensure a sustainable commitment to nonproliferation by those, like Taiwan, who are outside the international system.
During a visit to Russia, North Korean leader Kim Jong-il said he would be ready to discuss Pyongyang's nuclear production if international six-party talks, which ended in 2008, resume.
The existing nuclear order faces unprecedented changes. In navigating this changing landscape, the International Atomic Energy Agency faces three principal challenges.
The realization that both the United States and the Soviet Union shared an interest in preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons led to a 1968 agreement that existing nuclear weapons states would work toward nuclear zero if other states agreed not to develop nuclear weapons.
Although Beijing agreed not to export nuclear reactors to Pakistan when it joined the Nuclear Suppliers Group in 2004, it is currently planning the construction of two reactors at the Chasma site in Pakistan.