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    • Paper

    India’s Nuclear Options and Escalation Dominance

    The growing prominence of nuclear weapons in Pakistan’s national security strategy casts a shadow of nuclear use over any potential military strategy India might consider to strike this balance. However, augmenting its nuclear options with tactical nuclear weapons is unlikely to bolster Indian deterrence in convincing ways.

    • Event

    Chinese Nuclear Thinking: U.S. Perspectives

    Chinese nuclear experts think about nuclear weapons very differently from their U.S. counterparts. How can Washington and Beijing promote an effective dialogue despite their disparate approaches?

    • Article

    South Korea Debates Nuclear Options

    • Toby Dalton, Byun Sunggee, Lee Sang Tae
    • April 27, 2016

    North Korea’s nuclear test led some South Koreans to renew calls for a nuclear option. Interpreting Seoul’s signals will be challenging for U.S. policymakers.

    • Assessing Obama’s Nuclear Legacy

      • Toby Dalton, Mercy Kuo, Angie Tang
      • April 13, 2016
      • Diplomat

      President Obama framed a very ambitious nuclear agenda at the outset of his administration that, in retrospect, was vulnerable to foreign and domestic forces that rendered progress on parts of the agenda simply unachievable.

      • Op-Ed

      A Firewalled Nuke Fund Is Bad Budgeting and Bad Planning

      Creating a separate fund to protect service budgets from the costs of modernizing strategic nuclear weapons not only cheats the American taxpayer but also fuels an unnecessarily large arsenal stuffed with weapons the United States does not need to remain safe.

      • Strengthening the ROK-U.S. Nuclear Partnership

        • Toby Dalton, Miles Pomper, Scott Snyder, Ferenc Dalnoki-Veress
        • February 01, 2016
        • Center for Nonproliferation Studies

        South Korea and the United States have become essential partners on nuclear matters over the last forty years. However, as with all maturing relationships, there remain differences of view and priority that must be managed.

        • A Normal Nuclear Pakistan

          • Toby Dalton, Michael Krepon
          • August 27, 2015
          • The Stimson Center and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

          Pakistan’s military leadership can choose to accept success in achieving a “strategic” deterrent against India, or it can choose to continue to compete with India in the pursuit of “full spectrum” deterrence.

          • Event

          2015 Carnegie International Nuclear Policy Conference

          • March 24, 2015
          • Washington, DC

          The 2015 Carnegie International Nuclear Policy Conference brought together over 800 experts and officials from more than 45 countries and international organizations to discuss emerging trends in nuclear nonproliferation, disarmament, deterrence, and nuclear energy.

          • Article

          Comparing Nuclear Threat Perceptions Among Policy Shapers and Opinion Makers

          Is the salience of nuclear topics viewed differently by subject-matter experts than it is by elite opinion shapers? A survey of nuclear-themed editorials and policy articles published between 2001 and 2013.

          • Report

          Murky Waters: Naval Nuclear Dynamics in the Indian Ocean

          As India and Pakistan develop their naval nuclear forces, they will enter increasingly murky waters. By further institutionalizing relations between their navies, both countries may succeed in adding a greater degree of stability to a dangerously volatile maritime environment.

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        Personal Information

        Carnegie Experts on
        Nuclear Policy

        • expert thumbnail - Acton
          James M. Acton
          Jessica T. Mathews Chair
          Co-director
          Nuclear Policy Program
          Acton holds the Jessica T. Mathews Chair and is co-director of the Nuclear Policy Program and a senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
        • expert thumbnail - Dalton
          Toby Dalton
          Co-director
          Nuclear Policy Program
          Dalton is the co-director of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment. An expert on nonproliferation and nuclear energy, his work addresses regional security challenges and the evolution of the global nuclear order.
        • expert thumbnail - Hibbs
          Mark Hibbs
          Senior Fellow
          Nuclear Policy Program
          Hibbs is a Germany-based senior fellow in Carnegie’s Nuclear Policy Program. His areas of expertise are nuclear verification and safeguards, multilateral nuclear trade policy, international nuclear cooperation, and nonproliferation arrangements.
        • expert thumbnail - Kassenova
          Togzhan Kassenova
          Nonresident Fellow
          Nuclear Policy Program
          Kassenova is a nonresident fellow in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment.
        • expert thumbnail - Kühn
          Ulrich Kühn
          Nonresident Scholar
          Ulrich Kühn is a nonresident scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and a senior researcher at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg (IFSH).
        • expert thumbnail - Kurokawa
          Tomoko Kurokawa
          Nonresident Scholar
          Nuclear Policy Program
          Kurokawa is a nonresident scholar in the Carnegie Nuclear Policy Program.
        • expert thumbnail - Levite
          Ariel (Eli) Levite
          Nonresident Senior Fellow
          Nuclear Policy Program
          Levite was the principal deputy director general for policy at the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission from 2002 to 2007.
        • expert thumbnail - Bin
          Li Bin
          Senior Fellow
          Nuclear Policy Program and Asia Program
          Li is a senior fellow working jointly in the Nuclear Policy Program and Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
        • expert thumbnail - Narang
          Vipin Narang
          Nonresident Scholar
          Nuclear Policy Program
          Vipin Narang is a nonresident scholar in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
        • expert thumbnail - Perkovich
          George Perkovich
          Ken Olivier and Angela Nomellini Chair
          Vice President for Studies
          Perkovich works primarily on nuclear strategy and nonproliferation issues; cyberconflict; and new approaches to international public-private management of strategic technologies.
        • expert thumbnail - Robinson Snowden
          Mareena Robinson Snowden
          Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow
          Nuclear Policy Program
          Mareena Robinson Snowden is a Stanton nuclear security fellow with the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
        • expert thumbnail - Ülgen
          Sinan Ülgen
          Visiting Scholar
          Carnegie Europe
          Ülgen is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels, where his research focuses on Turkish foreign policy, nuclear policy, cyberpolicy, and transatlantic relations.
        • expert thumbnail - Volpe
          Tristan Volpe
          Nonresident Fellow
          Nuclear Policy Program
          Tristan Volpe is a nonresident fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and assistant professor of defense analysis at the Naval Postgraduate School.
        • expert thumbnail - Yoshida
          Fumihiko Yoshida
          Nonresident Scholar
          Nuclear Policy Program
          Fumihiko Yoshida is a nonresident scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
        • expert thumbnail - Zhao
          Tong Zhao
          Fellow
          Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy
          Tong Zhao is a fellow in Carnegie’s Nuclear Policy Program based at the Carnegie–Tsinghua Center for Global Policy.
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