This panel considered the political, security, and humanitarian situation in Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon and the threat posed by the rise of Salafist jihadist groups including the Islamic State, Al Nusra, and other groups. It also examined the dynamics between the Kurdish Regional Government and Baghdad as well as shifting relations between different Kurdish groups, including the PKK and Syrian and Iraqi Kurdish factions. Participants included Hayder al-Khoei of Chatham House, Joseph Bahout of Sciences Po, Denise Natali of the National Defense University, and Carnegie’s Yezid Sayigh. Carnegie’s Marwan Muasher moderated.