On October 8, Iran's President Mohammed Khatami said Tehran will cooperate "to assure the world that we are not pursuing nuclear weapons, which truly we are not.'' He also, however, reaffirmed Iran's determination to continue enriching uranium as its "obvious legal right." This is the core dilemma. The October 31 IAEA-imposed deadline for Iran is fast approaching. Will Iran, as required, resolve all outstanding questions on its nuclear program, and suspend all its uranium-enrichment activity?
Heydar Aliyev, president of oil-rich Azerbaijan, has finally accepted the frailties of age, withdrawing from the October 15 presidential election in favor of his son Ilham. This is the time for concerted international effort to ensure that those who bought the Azerbaijan's election don't own the country's presidency.
Buried in the October 2 congressional testimony of David Kay were two bombshells: all the Iraq Survey Group evidence collected to date indicates that there were not any active programs to develop or produce chemical or nuclear weapons. In the middle of a paragraph halfway through his testimony, Kay presents what should have been his lead finding: "Information found to date suggests that Iraq's large-scale capability to develop, produce, and fill new CW munitions was reduced - if not entirely destroyed - during Operations Desert Storm and Desert Fox, 13 years of UN sanctions and UN inspections." Similarly, three paragraphs into Kay's description of Saddam's intention to develop nuclear weapons, he says: "to date we have not uncovered evidence that Iraq undertook significant post-1998 steps to actually build nuclear weapons or produce fissile material."
The International Atomic Energy Agency has demanded that Iran give a full and final accounting of its nuclear activities by Oct. 31, or risk action by the U.N. Security Council. Iran's eastern neighbor, Pakistan, and Pakistan's traditional rival, India, have already tested nuclear weapons. India's neighbor and rival, China, has been a nuclear power for many years.
Drawing on the insights of some twenty-five leading Western and Middle Eastern scholars, <i>Islam and Democracy in the Middle East</i> highlights the dualistic and often contradictory nature of political liberalization. Political liberalization—as managed by the state—not only opens new spaces for debate and criticism, but is also used as a deliberate tactic to avoid genuine democratization.
The battle for democracy within Russia will largely be won or lost by internal forces. In the margins, however, the United States can help to tilt the balance in favor of those who support freedom. While many issues in U.S.-Russian relations should be tackled principally and primarily by the executive branch, democracy promotion is one issue in which the U.S. Congress should take an active role.
Business leaders, government officials and military planners fret over China's potential to wreak havoc in the world. These anxieties are based on China's growing power; but the real threats it poses will spring from its weaknesses, not its strengths.