The way out of the Israeli-Palestinian impasse may be two sets of unilateral steps: a unilateral Israeli withdrawal from most of the Palestinian territories still under its control, coupled with both consolidation to most of the larger and contiguous Israeli settlements and abandonment of the smaller and isolated ones–and, on the Palestinian side, a unilateral declaration of independence.
China is slowly modernizing its strategic nuclear forces. There is no evidence to suggest either an acceleration of the program or any near-term threat to the United States. Chinese doctrine is centered around the maintenance of a "limited nuclear deterrent" capable of launching a retaliatory strike after an adversary's nuclear attack. The design and deployment of China's nuclear forces have been shaped by two key concerns: the survival of a second strike capability and the potential deployment of missile defense systems.
Background Note for December 8-9, 2000 Conference, Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia
In a major new report, An Agenda for Renewal: U.S.-Russian Relations, senior Carnegie Endowment experts call on the new U.S. administration to review its approach to dealing with Russia in several key policy areas.
On December 3, Pakistan announced that its armed forces along Kashmir's Line of Control (LoC) would immediately "observe maximum restraint in order to strengthen and stabilize the cease-fire." This was in response to an unprecedented Indian cease-fire against Kashmiri militants, which took effect on November 27. India says there has been a "recognizable reduction" in firing across the LoC, but by December 6, Indian troops had killed twelve suspected guerillas trying to cross the LoC, arguing that the cease-fire did not extend to infiltrators. Even as each side wondered about the motivations of the other, these developments have engendered cautious optimism about peace prospects in nuclear-armed South Asia, while demonstrating the many hurdles ahead.
Unless taken to an extreme, the particulars of a national candidate’s defense policy positions are not likely to swing voters one way or the other.
The development of real output during the initial transition in East-Central Europe and the former Soviet Union rests on four factors: contraction prior to marketization, increased under-reporting of output, the reduction of value detraction, and the elimination of implicit trade subsidies. The Soviet economy was in a far worse shape than generally understood.
The schedule for the Navy's Area missile defense program faces significant delays, according to a recent Pentagon comptroller report. The November report damages the case of experts pushing for a rapid deployment of naval-based national missile defenses.
In determining how they should react to internal crises in other countries, the nations of the world need to consider under what conditions intervention is appropriate, which international actors should participate, and the best ways of carrying out interventions.
The United States today waived sanctions against Chinese entities for missile-related exports to Iran and Pakistan in exchange for a new commitment by China to establish formal and comprehensive missile-related export controls. China announced its intention to publish a formal missile-related export control list, including dual-use items with applications in ballistic missiles, and to require all Chinese entities to obtain an export control license for all controlled items.
Russian President Vladimir Putin stated on November 13 that the U.S. and Russia could slash their arsenals to 1,500 weapons by 2008. He also suggested that there is room for "wide-ranging cooperation in anti-missile defenses for theatres of military operation."
<span class="gray">An effective Indian deterrent against Pakistan and China would require one hundred and fifty nuclear warheads, delivered by missiles or bombers, according to a key advisor to the Indian government on nuclear and strategic issues. Mr. K. Subrahmanyam, a leading member of the National Security Advisory Board, which authored India's Draft Nuclear Doctrine, argues that India should "project a credible deterrence," by working out strategies, policies and a command and control structure. He described India's Draft Nuclear Doctrine as a "most logical, most restrained and most economical" document. </span>
As a result of budget constraints, Russia's Strategic Missile Forces are having problems procuring new missiles, <i>Defense News</i> reports.