Alexander Lukashenko has built a highly consolidated, adaptive authoritarian regime. Examining how the Belarusian political system is structured and how its relationships with its citizens, Russia, and the West have evolved may help shed light on possible paths that Minsk could take as Lukashenko ages and economic challenges continue to mount.
Reforms in Ukraine have taken a back seat during a protracted season of electoral politics. A key question is whether the rival factions can compete peacefully and avoid destabilizing the country again.
A mood of realism around the Transdniestria conflict, supported by Russia, is leading to areas of de facto integration. The Moldovan government is cautious, but this is an opportunity for more international engagement.
Erik Brattberg is director of the Europe Program and a fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington. He is an expert on European politics and security and transatlantic relations.
Associate Fellow Democracy and Rule of Law Program
Saskia Brechenmacher is an associate fellow in Carnegie’s Democracy and Rule of Law Program, where her research focuses on gender, conflict, and governance, as well as trends in civic activism and civil society repression.
Lehne is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels, where his research focuses on the post–Lisbon Treaty development of the European Union’s foreign policy, with a specific focus on relations between the EU and member states.