NGOs frequently call on oil and mining companies to not only improve their own practices but also those of the countries in which they operate. But private corporations cannot reform developing-country governments; neither can the governments of industrialized countries, the World Bank, or the NGOs. Much of the change can only come from inside, and the process will be slow and convoluted.
The Carnegie Endowment hosted a meeting to introduce the United States Commitee for Refugees' World Refugee Survey 2001. Experts discussed refugee trends in 2000.
A large swath of Africa has been engulfed by war for several years. The situation is unlikely to improve because the conflicts arise from the disintegration of postcolonial states—the order that was imposed on Africa by outside states. Wars will continue to flare up until a new order emerges, either imposed by the international community or based on new territorial and political arrangements.
In the 1990s, the Clinton administration led the international community in pursuit of a grand vision of reforming African countries into modern free-market democracies. That vision, however, was a poor match for the reality of conflict and stagnation on the ground. U.S. resources fell short of the rhetoric, and the policy yielded few results.
Carnegie's International Migration Policy Program hosted a briefing to discuss a recent survey of mortality in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its implications for the humanitarian and policy-making communities.
The Great Lakes Region of Africa has the greatest need of humanitarian aid yet receives the lowest proportion of resources relative to that need. Bishop Phillip Straling, Auxiliary Bishop Thomas Wenski, Father Michael Perry, and Lacy Wright discussed their recent trip to the region in a talk moderated by Kathleen Newland.
Time and again, US officials have stated that they do not want America to become the policeman of the world. Yet the one institution that can help the United States from being placed in that role-the United Nations-has been treated shabbily by the United States. The United States must re-affirm the UN’s mission with concrete action, beginning with the payment of long-overdue UN dues.
Democratic transformations are never simple, linear processes. If it wants to promote democracy, the international community will have to accept the messy, compromise–driven policymaking process with which the citizens of democratic countries are familiar.
During the 1990s, more than fifty new episodes of sanctions occurred. The conventional wisdom is that sanctions are ineffective and merely serve to placate public demands for action. David Cortright and George Lopez presented the findings of their book, The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s, which develops a set of criteria for judging the full impact of sanctions.
Much of the world sees Africa as one of two extremes. Either it is a continent beset by genocidal warfare, corrupt leaders, and rampant poverty or it is a region that is about to enter a renaissance. But Africa is neither on the verge of widespread anarchy nor at the dawn of democratic and economic renewal.