During the 1990s, more than fifty new episodes of sanctions occurred. The conventional wisdom is that sanctions are ineffective and merely serve to placate public demands for action. David Cortright and George Lopez presented the findings of their book, The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s, which develops a set of criteria for judging the full impact of sanctions.
Much of the world sees Africa as one of two extremes. Either it is a continent beset by genocidal warfare, corrupt leaders, and rampant poverty or it is a region that is about to enter a renaissance. But Africa is neither on the verge of widespread anarchy nor at the dawn of democratic and economic renewal.
Face-to-Face Discussion moderated by Ambassador Donald McHenry, Georgetown University. Featured speakers included Princeton University Professor Jeffrey I. Herbst and Carnegie Endowment Senior Associate Marina Ottaway.
For lasting peace, the colonial powers must leave the warring nations of Africa to find their own solutions: most conflicts are about internal failure, not simple border quarrels.
The Carnegie Endowment hosted a breakfast briefing with representatives from Human Rights Watch Africa.