South Asia


    • Book

    India's Emerging Nuclear Posture: Between Recessed Deterrent and Ready Arsenal

    This book examines the forces—political, strategic, technological, and ideational—that led to India's dramatic nuclear policy shift and describes how New Delhi's force-in-being will be fashioned, particularly in light of the threat India faces from its two most salient adversaries, China, and Pakistan.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    This War Will Not Be Televised

    • October 04, 2001

    Military operations appear imminent as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld takes a swing through the Middle East and Central Asia. But this will not be like previous wars. Don't expect to see explosions behind CNN reporters. The targets will be select, precise and far from telephoto lenses.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    U.S. Proliferation Policy and the Campaign Against Terror

    • September 17, 2001

    Tuesday's terror attacks on New York and Washington DC should bring about a major shift in US nonproliferation policies. Until now, the main goal of US nonproliferation policy has been to prevent the emergence of new nuclear nations. After Tuesday's terror attacks, however, the focus of US efforts is to prevent terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction. In most ways these policies are complementary and not in competition. But making the shift will pose risks and require tradeoffs.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    Multilateralism A La Carte

    • August 06, 2001

    State Department Director for Policy Planning Richard Haass describes the Bush Administration rejection of key international treaties as "a la carte multilateralism." New York Times reporter Thom Shanker says administration officials reject pacts that limit U.S. actions but favor those that restrain others, such as missile technology restraints, the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Non-Proliferation Treaty. But can the whole survive with just some of its parts? Can global security be maintained piece-meal? Project Director Joseph Cirincione warned of the dangers of precisely this approach in Foreign Policy magazine last year.

    • Event

    New Leaders, New Directions

    Carnegie International Non-Proliferation Conference 2001

    Listen to Opening Remarks of Jessica Mathews, president of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    New Delhi: Searching for an "Alliance of Interests" with Washington

    • May 15, 2001

    On May 11, on the third anniversary of India's nuclear tests, U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage met with top Indian government officials to talk about missile defenses and non-proliferation concerns. His message found a receptive audience. Three years after the nadir in U.S.-India relations, the turnaround in relations is striking.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    India Successfully Tests its Nuclear-Capable Agni II

    • January 18, 2001

    On Wednesday, January 17, India conducted a successful test of the 2000 km-range Agni II nuclear-capable ballistic missile. The test demonstrates that India's nuclear weaponization program continues to progress, albeit in slow-motion. According to Indian officials, this was Agni II's first test in "its final operational configuration," and the mission's objectives were met "satisfactorily." With only two successful tests nearly two years apart, Agni II is still not ready to deploy, although it is a step closer.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    Tension Eases in South Asia

    • December 21, 2000

    On December 20, Pakistan announced a partial withdrawal from the Line of Control (LoC) in Kashmir, responding to India's extension of a cease-fire against Kashmiri militants. India's Prime Minister Vajpayee cited "encouraging developments" in announcing the decision to extend the cease-fire beyond the original December 28 deadline to January 26, 2001. The latest developments suggest that the Indian cease-fire against the militants and Pakistan's commitment to exercise "maximum restraint" along the LoC have succeeded in creating a new dynamic in the region.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    Flicker of Hope in South Asia

    • December 06, 2000

    On December 3, Pakistan announced that its armed forces along Kashmir's Line of Control (LoC) would immediately "observe maximum restraint in order to strengthen and stabilize the cease-fire." This was in response to an unprecedented Indian cease-fire against Kashmiri militants, which took effect on November 27. India says there has been a "recognizable reduction" in firing across the LoC, but by December 6, Indian troops had killed twelve suspected guerillas trying to cross the LoC, arguing that the cease-fire did not extend to infiltrators. Even as each side wondered about the motivations of the other, these developments have engendered cautious optimism about peace prospects in nuclear-armed South Asia, while demonstrating the many hurdles ahead.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    Nuclear Differences Persist Between Washington and New Delhi

    • November 14, 2000

    An effective Indian deterrent against Pakistan and China would require one hundred and fifty nuclear warheads, delivered by missiles or bombers, according to a key advisor to the Indian government on nuclear and strategic issues. Mr. K. Subrahmanyam, a leading member of the National Security Advisory Board, which authored India's Draft Nuclear Doctrine, argues that India should "project a credible deterrence," by working out strategies, policies and a command and control structure. He described India's Draft Nuclear Doctrine as a "most logical, most restrained and most economical" document.

Carnegie Experts on
South Asia

  • expert thumbnail - Baruah
    Darshana M. Baruah
    Nonresident Scholar
    South Asia Program
    Darshana M. Baruah is a nonresident scholar with the South Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Her primary research focuses on maritime security in Asia and the role of the Indian Navy in a new security architecture.
  • expert thumbnail - Blanc
    Jarrett Blanc
    Senior Fellow
    Geoeconomics and Strategy Program
    Jarrett Blanc is a senior fellow in the Geoeconomics and Strategy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Brown
    Frances Z. Brown
    Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program
    Frances Z. Brown is a fellow with Carnegie’s Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program, where she researches stabilization, state building, democratization, decentralization, drivers of conflict, and local governance in fragile states.
  • expert thumbnail - Charlet
    Katherine Charlet
    Technology and International Affairs Program
    Katherine Charlet is the inaugural director of Carnegie’s Technology and International Affairs Program.
  • expert thumbnail - Chaudhuri
    Rudra Chaudhuri
    Carnegie India
    Rudra Chaudhuri is the director of Carnegie India. His primary research interests include the diplomatic history of South Asia and contemporary security issues.
  • expert thumbnail - Dalton
    Toby Dalton
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Dalton is the co-director of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment. An expert on nonproliferation and nuclear energy, his work addresses regional security challenges and the evolution of the global nuclear order.
  • expert thumbnail - Feigenbaum
    Evan A. Feigenbaum
    Vice President for Studies
    Evan A. Feigenbaum is vice president for studies at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he oversees research in Washington, Beijing and New Delhi on a dynamic region encompassing both East Asia and South Asia.
  • expert thumbnail - Grare
    Frederic Grare
    Nonresident Senior Fellow
    South Asia Program
    Grare is a nonresident senior fellow in Carnegie’s South Asia Program. His research focuses on security issues and democratization in India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Previously, he led the Asia bureau at the Directorate for Strategic Affairs in the French Ministry of Defense.
  • expert thumbnail - Jaffrelot
    Christophe Jaffrelot
    Nonresident Scholar
    South Asia Program
    Jaffrelot’s core research focuses on theories of nationalism and democracy, mobilization of the lower castes and Dalits (ex-untouchables) in India, the Hindu nationalist movement, and ethnic conflicts in Pakistan.
  • expert thumbnail - Mathews
    Jessica Tuchman Mathews
    Distinguished Fellow
    Mathews is a distinguished fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. She served as Carnegie’s president for 18 years.
  • expert thumbnail - Misra
    R.K. Misra
    Nonresident Scholar
    Carnegie India
    R.K. Misra is a nonresident scholar at Carnegie India. Based in Bengaluru, he drives Carnegie India’s Technology and Society program, and engages with technology innovators and policymakers.
  • expert thumbnail - Narang
    Vipin Narang
    Nonresident Scholar
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Vipin Narang is a nonresident scholar in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Perkovich
    George Perkovich
    Ken Olivier and Angela Nomellini Chair
    Vice President for Studies
    Perkovich works primarily on nuclear strategy and nonproliferation issues; cyberconflict; and new approaches to international public-private management of strategic technologies.
  • expert thumbnail - Ryu
    Rexon Ryu
    Nonresident Senior Fellow
    Ryu is a nonresident senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he leads an initiative focused on the intersection of diplomacy, technology, and innovation.
  • expert thumbnail - Schwemlein
    James Schwemlein
    Nonresident Scholar
    South Asia Program
    James Schwemlein is a nonresident scholar in the South Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Shah
    Aqil Shah
    Nonresident Scholar
    South Asia Program
    Aqil Shah is a nonresident scholar in the South Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Tellis
    Ashley J. Tellis
    Tata Chair for Strategic Affairs
    Ashley J. Tellis holds the Tata Chair for Strategic Affairs and is a senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, specializing in international security and U.S. foreign and defense policy with a special focus on Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
  • expert thumbnail - Vaishnav
    Milan Vaishnav
    Director and Senior Fellow
    South Asia Program
    Vaishnav’s primary research focus is the political economy of India, and he examines issues such as corruption and governance, state capacity, distributive politics, and electoral behavior.
  • expert thumbnail - West
    Tom West
    Nonresident Scholar
    South Asia Program
    Tom West is a nonresident scholar in the South Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and an associate vice president at the Cohen Group.

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