South Asia


    • Proliferation Analysis

    India Successfully Tests its Nuclear-Capable Agni II

    • January 18, 2001

    On Wednesday, January 17, India conducted a successful test of the 2000 km-range Agni II nuclear-capable ballistic missile. The test demonstrates that India's nuclear weaponization program continues to progress, albeit in slow-motion. According to Indian officials, this was Agni II's first test in "its final operational configuration," and the mission's objectives were met "satisfactorily." With only two successful tests nearly two years apart, Agni II is still not ready to deploy, although it is a step closer.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    Tension Eases in South Asia

    • December 21, 2000

    On December 20, Pakistan announced a partial withdrawal from the Line of Control (LoC) in Kashmir, responding to India's extension of a cease-fire against Kashmiri militants. India's Prime Minister Vajpayee cited "encouraging developments" in announcing the decision to extend the cease-fire beyond the original December 28 deadline to January 26, 2001. The latest developments suggest that the Indian cease-fire against the militants and Pakistan's commitment to exercise "maximum restraint" along the LoC have succeeded in creating a new dynamic in the region.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    Flicker of Hope in South Asia

    • December 06, 2000

    On December 3, Pakistan announced that its armed forces along Kashmir's Line of Control (LoC) would immediately "observe maximum restraint in order to strengthen and stabilize the cease-fire." This was in response to an unprecedented Indian cease-fire against Kashmiri militants, which took effect on November 27. India says there has been a "recognizable reduction" in firing across the LoC, but by December 6, Indian troops had killed twelve suspected guerillas trying to cross the LoC, arguing that the cease-fire did not extend to infiltrators. Even as each side wondered about the motivations of the other, these developments have engendered cautious optimism about peace prospects in nuclear-armed South Asia, while demonstrating the many hurdles ahead.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    Nuclear Differences Persist Between Washington and New Delhi

    • November 14, 2000

    An effective Indian deterrent against Pakistan and China would require one hundred and fifty nuclear warheads, delivered by missiles or bombers, according to a key advisor to the Indian government on nuclear and strategic issues. Mr. K. Subrahmanyam, a leading member of the National Security Advisory Board, which authored India's Draft Nuclear Doctrine, argues that India should "project a credible deterrence," by working out strategies, policies and a command and control structure. He described India's Draft Nuclear Doctrine as a "most logical, most restrained and most economical" document.

    • Event

    Radical Islamist Mobilization in Central Asia

    "Armed incursions into Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan by radical Islamists whose declared aim is to establish a religious state in Central Asia have sent shock waves through Central Asia and have drawn as much international attention to the region as any issue since independence."

    • Event

    Nuclear Arming in South Asia: What Should Be Done?

    • October 17, 2000

    • Proliferation Analysis

    Mr. Putin in India: Nuclear Ties to Continue

    • October 05, 2000

    Russian President Vladimir Putin's visit to India has underscored Moscow's willingness to continue its nuclear cooperation with New Delhi, while strengthening Indo-Russian defense ties. Mr Putin's unprecedented visit to the center of India's nuclear weaponization program -- Bhabha Atomic Research Center - was perceived "like a blessing from the top for Indo-Russian nuclear ties." The two countries also signed a memorandum of understanding expanding cooperation in peaceful nuclear energy. Details were not forthcoming, but The Hindu quoted sources saying the memorandum "is a Russian commitment to contribute to India's growing nuclear energy requirements."

    • Proliferation Analysis

    South Asia's Missile Messages

    • September 28, 2000

    Pakistan reportedly has begun full-scale production of the Shaheen I, a 600 km-range, nuclear-capable ballistic missile, successfully tested in April 1999. On September 21, the Pakistani daily The News quoted an unnamed government official saying, "mass production of Shaheen, which can hit Indian strategic points like Mumbai [formerly known as Bombay] and others with 100% accuracy, has started.

    • Proliferation Analysis

    Mr. Vajpayee Goes to Washington

    • September 15, 2000

    India's Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee arrives in Washington on September 13, amidst international fears that South Asia remains a nuclear tinderbox. According to the outgoing Indian Chief of Army Staff, "the chances of war are much more than they were …five years ago."

    • Proliferation Analysis

    Vajpayee's Nuclear Diplomacy

    • September 14, 2000

    Indian Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee reaffirmed that "subject to its supreme national interests" India "will continue its voluntary moratorium until the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) comes into effect." The joint statement with President Clinton also reiterated that the Indian government would "continue efforts" to create a national consensus on the CTBT, in order to bring the discussions "to a successful conclusion." India also stated its commitment "not to block entry into force of the Treaty." The statement echoed the Prime Minister's assertion in a speech to a joint session of Congress on September 14, that India did not wish to "unravel" Washington's non-proliferation efforts. Mr. Vajpayee has attempted to shift Washington's focus on dangers emanating from South Asia, from non-proliferation to terrorism.

Carnegie Experts on
Special Projects

  • expert thumbnail - Baruah
    Darshana M. Baruah
    Associate Fellow
    South Asia Program
    Darshana M. Baruah is an associate fellow with the South Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace where she leads the Indian Ocean Initiative. Her primary research focuses on maritime security in Asia and the role of the Indian Navy in a new security architecture.
  • expert thumbnail - Bellows
    Abigail Bellows
    Nonresident Scholar
    Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program
    Abigail Bellows is a nonresident scholar in the Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • expert thumbnail - Brown
    Frances Z. Brown
    Senior Fellow and Co-Director
    Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program
    Frances Z. Brown is a senior fellow and co-director of Carnegie’s Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program, who previously worked at the White House, USAID, and in nongovernmental organizations. She writes on conflict, governance, and U.S. foreign policy
  • expert thumbnail - Chaudhuri
    Rudra Chaudhuri
    Carnegie India
    Rudra Chaudhuri is the director of Carnegie India. His primary research interests include the diplomatic history of South Asia and contemporary security issues.
  • expert thumbnail - Crocker
    Ryan Crocker
    Nonresident Senior Fellow
    Ryan Crocker is a nonresident senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Dalton
    Toby Dalton
    Co-director and Senior Fellow
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Dalton is the co-director and a senior fellow of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment. An expert on nonproliferation and nuclear energy, his work addresses regional security challenges and the evolution of the global nuclear order.
  • expert thumbnail - Feigenbaum
    Evan A. Feigenbaum
    Vice President for Studies
    Evan A. Feigenbaum is vice president for studies at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he oversees research in Washington, Beijing, and New Delhi on a dynamic region encompassing both East Asia and South Asia.
  • expert thumbnail - Ghattas
    Kim Ghattas
    Nonresident Senior Fellow
    Kim Ghattas is a nonresident senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Gokhale
    Vijay Gokhale
    Nonresident Senior Fellow
    Carnegie India
    Mr. Vijay Gokhale is a nonresident senior fellow at Carnegie India and the former foreign secretary of India.
  • expert thumbnail - Grare
    Frederic Grare
    Nonresident Senior Fellow
    South Asia Program
    Grare is a nonresident senior fellow in Carnegie’s South Asia Program. His research focuses on security issues and democratization in India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Previously, he led the Asia bureau at the Directorate for Strategic Affairs in the French Ministry of Defense.
  • expert thumbnail - Jaffrelot
    Christophe Jaffrelot
    Nonresident Scholar
    South Asia Program
    Jaffrelot’s core research focuses on theories of nationalism and democracy, mobilization of the lower castes and Dalits (ex-untouchables) in India, the Hindu nationalist movement, and ethnic conflicts in Pakistan.
  • expert thumbnail - Mathews
    Jessica Tuchman Mathews
    Distinguished Fellow
    Mathews is a distinguished fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. She served as Carnegie’s president for 18 years.
  • expert thumbnail - Misra
    R.K. Misra
    Nonresident Scholar
    Carnegie India
    R.K. Misra is a nonresident scholar at Carnegie India. Based in Bengaluru, he drives Carnegie India’s Technology and Society program, and engages with technology innovators and policymakers.
  • expert thumbnail - Narang
    Vipin Narang
    Nonresident Scholar
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Vipin Narang is a nonresident scholar in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Pal
    Deep Pal
    Visiting Fellow
    Asia Program
    Deep Pal is a visiting fellow in the Asia program at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Panda
    Ankit Panda
    Stanton Senior Fellow
    Nuclear Policy Program
    Ankit Panda is the Stanton Senior Fellow in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Perkovich
    George Perkovich
    Ken Olivier and Angela Nomellini Chair
    Vice President for Studies
    Perkovich works primarily on nuclear strategy and nonproliferation issues; cyberconflict; and new approaches to international public-private management of strategic technologies.
  • expert thumbnail - Schwemlein
    James Schwemlein
    Nonresident Scholar
    South Asia Program
    James Schwemlein is a nonresident scholar in the South Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Staniland
    Paul Staniland
    Nonresident Scholar
    South Asia Program
    Paul Staniland is a nonresident scholar in the South Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  • expert thumbnail - Tellis
    Ashley J. Tellis
    Tata Chair for Strategic Affairs
    Ashley J. Tellis holds the Tata Chair for Strategic Affairs and is a senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, specializing in international security and U.S. foreign and defense policy with a special focus on Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
  • expert thumbnail - Tiwari
    Udbhav Tiwari
    Nonresident Scholar
    Carnegie India
    Udbhav Tiwari is a public policy professional who works towards keeping the internet open, secure, and accessible by advocating for progressive regulations in the technology sector.
  • expert thumbnail - Vaishnav
    Milan Vaishnav
    Director and Senior Fellow
    South Asia Program
    Vaishnav’s primary research focus is the political economy of India, and he examines issues such as corruption and governance, state capacity, distributive politics, and electoral behavior.

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