Eastern Europe


    • Book

    New Markets, New Opportunities? Economic and Social Mobility in a Changing World

    • Nancy Birdsall, Carol Graham
    • January 01, 2000
    • Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2000

    Many of the countries that have recently converted to a market-based economic system have also experienced an alarming increase in income inequality — a widening gap between the haves and have nots. But to what extent is the increase in inequality also increasing the opportunities for economic advancement — particularly for those at the bottom of the economic ladder?

    • Op-Ed

    Radical Reformers Lead the Way

    A great transformation of the former Soviet bloc has occurred in the last decade. All countries that opted for radical reform have accomplished something, while those that did not have largely failed. The initial reform strategy has been of fundamental and lasting importance. Countries have ended up either in a virtuous circle or in a vicious circle.

    • Book

    Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve

    This book examines democracy aid programs relating to elections, political parties, governmental reform, rule of law, civil society, independent media, labor unions, decentralization, and other elements of what Carothers describes as "the democracy template" that policy makers and aid officials apply around the world.

    • Book

    Belarus at the Crossroads

    • Robert Legvold, Sherman Garnett
    • November 01, 1999
    • Washington

    Belarus, although frequently overlooked in the West, is a country critical to the development of the post-Soviet states and to Europe as a whole. Its location alone points to Belarus's importance as a major geopolitical player. On top of that, the ambitions of its president mean that Belarus will likely have a say in the future of Russia, Ukraine, and other neighboring states.

    • Paper

    Challenge of Semi-Authoritarianism

    Several factors explain why a growing number of regimes are adopting outwardly more democratic political systems: the loss of appeal of socialist systems during the 1990s, the creation of newly independent states, and the corresponding need felt by an increasing number of governments to legitimize themselves in the eyes of their citizens and of the international community.

    • Western Civil-Society Aid to Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

      Western aid for civil-society development in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union needs to be evaluated from a past-present-future standpoint. It is also important to place the aid in the context of developments in the region.

      • Op-Ed

      From Belgrade to Beijing

      • Testimony

      Problems with Economic Transformation in Ukraine

      • Anders Aslund
      • June 23, 1999
      • The Fifth Dubrovnik Conference on Transition Economies

      Economic transformation in the former Soviet Union has been arduous with substantial declines in output and welfare. Even in this unfortunate lot, Ukraine stands out as one of the least successful countries in its attempts to become a productive market economy. The purpose of this paper is to try to determine why Ukraine has not been more auspicious in its attempts at economic reform.

      • Op-Ed

      Divide and Survive

      The partition of Kosovo--let alone Macedonia--and the acceptance of solutions involving partition for the Caucasus will take courage on the part of Western leaders, because it would require deals (especially with Russia) which will be unpopular with Congress. But at a time when servicemen are being required to show courage in the field, it is not inappropriate to ask their leaders to do the same.

      • Op-Ed

      Clinton's Kosovo Collapse

    Carnegie Experts on
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      James M. Acton
      Jessica T. Mathews Chair
      Nuclear Policy Program
      Acton holds the Jessica T. Mathews Chair and is co-director of the Nuclear Policy Program and a senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
    • expert thumbnail - Adebahr
      Cornelius Adebahr
      Nonresident Fellow
      Carnegie Europe
      Adebahr is a nonresident fellow at Carnegie Europe. His research focuses on European foreign policy.
    • expert thumbnail - Baer
      Dan Baer
      Senior Fellow
      Europe Program
      Dan Baer is a senior fellow in the Europe program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
    • expert thumbnail - Brattberg
      Erik Brattberg
      Europe Program
      Erik Brattberg is director of the Europe Program and a fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington. He is an expert on European politics and security and transatlantic relations.
    • expert thumbnail - Brechenmacher
      Saskia Brechenmacher
      Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program
      Saskia Brechenmacher is a fellow in Carnegie’s Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program, where her research focuses on gender, civil society, and democratic governance.
    • expert thumbnail - Carothers
      Thomas Carothers
      Harvey V. Fineberg Chair for Democracy Studies
      Senior Vice President for Studies
      Thomas Carothers is senior vice president for studies at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He is a leading authority on international support for democracy, human rights, governance, the rule of law, and civil society.
    • expert thumbnail - Carragher
      Allison Carragher
      Visiting Scholar
      Carnegie Europe
      Allison Carragher is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe, where she specializes in economic engagement in the Western Balkans and countries of the former Yugoslavia.
    • expert thumbnail - Collins
      James F. Collins
      Nonresident Senior Fellow
      Russia and Eurasia Program;
      Diplomat in Residence
      Ambassador Collins was the U.S. ambassador to the Russian Federation from 1997 to 2001 and is an expert on the former Soviet Union, its successor states, and the Middle East.
    • expert thumbnail - de Waal
      Thomas de Waal
      Senior Fellow
      Carnegie Europe
      De Waal is a senior fellow with Carnegie Europe, specializing in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus region.
    • expert thumbnail - Dempsey
      Judy Dempsey
      Nonresident Senior Fellow
      Carnegie Europe
      Editor in chief
      Strategic Europe
      Dempsey is a nonresident senior fellow at Carnegie Europe and editor in chief of Strategic Europe.
    • expert thumbnail - Gottemoeller
      Rose Gottemoeller
      Nonresident Senior Fellow
      Nuclear Policy Program
      Rose Gottemoeller is a nonresident senior fellow in Carnegie’s Nuclear Policy Program. She also serves as the Frank E. and Arthur W. Payne Distinguished Lecturer at Stanford University’s Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and is a research fellow at the Hoover Institution.
    • expert thumbnail - Hill
      Christopher Hill
      Nonresident Senior Fellow
      Asia Program
      Ambassador Christopher Robert Hill is currently chief global advisor at the University of Denver Global Engagement. He is a former career diplomat, a four-time ambassador, nominated by three presidents, whose last post was as ambassador to Iraq.
    • expert thumbnail - Kühn
      Ulrich Kühn
      Nonresident Scholar
      Nuclear Policy Program
      Ulrich Kühn is a nonresident scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and the head of the arms control and emerging technologies program at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg.
    • expert thumbnail - Lehne
      Stefan Lehne
      Visiting Scholar
      Carnegie Europe
      Lehne is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels, where his research focuses on the post–Lisbon Treaty development of the European Union’s foreign policy, with a specific focus on relations between the EU and member states.
    • expert thumbnail - Lucas Magnuson
      Laura Lucas Magnuson
      Vice President for Communications and Strategy
      Laura Lucas Magnuson is the vice president for communications and strategy at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
    • expert thumbnail - Movchan
      Andrey Movchan
      Nonresident Scholar
      Economic Policy Program
      Carnegie Moscow Center
      Movchan is a nonresident scholar in the Economic Policy Program at the Carnegie Moscow Center.
    • Philip Remler
      Nonresident Scholar
      Russia and Eurasia Program
      Philip Remler is a nonresident scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
    • expert thumbnail - Rumer
      Eugene Rumer
      Director and Senior Fellow
      Russia and Eurasia Program
      Rumer, a former national intelligence officer for Russia and Eurasia at the U.S. National Intelligence Council, is a senior fellow and the director of Carnegie’s Russia and Eurasia Program.
    • expert thumbnail - Samorukov
      Maxim Samorukov
      Deputy Editor of Carnegie.ru
      Carnegie Moscow Center
      Samorukov is a fellow at the Carnegie Moscow Center and deputy editor of Carnegie.ru.
    • expert thumbnail - Sasse
      Gwendolyn Sasse
      Nonresident Senior Fellow
      Carnegie Europe
      Sasse is a nonresident senior fellow at Carnegie Europe. Her research focuses on Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, EU enlargement, and comparative democratization.
    • expert thumbnail - Trenin
      Dmitri Trenin
      Carnegie Moscow Center
      Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center, has been with the center since its inception. He also chairs the research council and the Foreign and Security Policy Program.
    • expert thumbnail - Ülgen
      Sinan Ülgen
      Visiting Scholar
      Carnegie Europe
      Ülgen is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels, where his research focuses on Turkish foreign policy, nuclear policy, cyberpolicy, and transatlantic relations.
    • expert thumbnail - Weiss
      Andrew S. Weiss
      James Family Chair
      Vice President for Studies
      Weiss is the James Family Chair and vice president for studies at the Carnegie Endowment, where he oversees research in Washington and Moscow on Russia and Eurasia.

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