Western Europe

    • Strategic Europe

    Russia’s Lesser-Known Intentions in Ukraine

    One of Russia’s aims in Ukraine is gaining access to vital resources the EU needs to deliver on its climate change agenda. The use of force and instrumentalization of war are central to Moscow’s strategy.

    • Research

    Supporting Democracy After the Invasion of Ukraine

    • Richard Youngs, Ken Godfrey, Nic Cheeseman, Christian Leffler, Julia Leininger, Staffan I. Lindberg, Michael Meyer-Resende, Victoria Perotti, Anthony Smith
    • June 14, 2022

    The Russian invasion of Ukraine has dramatically altered the security and defense architecture of Europe. It also has the potential to reshape democracy support policies, changing practices of defending and extending democratic values and of interactions with autocratic states.

    • Commentary

    Europe Must Not Allow the Momentum for Expansion to Slip

    The war in Ukraine has given impetus to a new round of EU enlargement. Concerns about corruption, stagnation, and democratic backsliding tendencies may hamper the union's response but engagement with Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia must be sustained.

    • Event

    Summer Reads: The Pivotal Generation

    Join the Carnegie Endowment for the last of a two-part Summer Reads series featuring Henry Shue, author of The Pivotal Generation, and Dan Baer, acting director of Carnegie’s Europe Program, to reflect upon the modern environmentalist movement and where we are: at the last opportunity to act.

    • Research

    What NATO Needs to Do Before Finland and Sweden Join

    • Paul Poast
    • June 07, 2022

    NATO shouldn’t wait until Finland and Sweden officially join to figure out the practicalities of how to defend the Nordic countries.

    • Strategic Europe

    NATO and the EU Need a Strategy for Eastern Europe

    Recent moves by Denmark, Finland, and Sweden are strengthening European security. But Russia’s aggression against Ukraine must fundamentally change how NATO and the EU approach their Eastern neighbors.

    • Commentary

    Even if Johnson Wins Tonight’s Vote, He Will Be Damaged Beyond Repair

    Despite the positive vote of confidence for Boris Johnson, public distrust of the British prime minister will negatively affect his party. To save face, the Conservative party should remove Johnson and replace him with a leader who is regarded as honest and competent.

    • Commentary

    Why Turkey Is Imperiling NATO Enlargement

    Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s negative stance toward Finland and Sweden joining NATO jeopardizes further enlargement of the alliance amid great geopolitical insecurity. Breaking this stalemate will require a compromise from all sides.

    • Multimedia

    Should the West Be Careful Not to Humiliate Putin?

    The Russians have really humiliated themselves from the beginning of this fight, with the performance of their armed forces.

    • Research

    Will France’s Africa Policy Hold Up?

    • Corentin Cohen
    • June 02, 2022

    While Macron’s pivot has created new political space for France-Africa engagement on more equal footing, the French president’s vision of mutual aid and reciprocal partnerships between France and African countries remains unfulfilled.

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