• Wolfgang Ischinger


    Wolfgang Ischinger is the chair of the Munich Security Conference and global head of government relations at Allianz SE in Munich. He has served as Germany's ambassador to the United Kingdom and the United States, and as state secretary (deputy foreign minister) of the Federal Foreign Office. He was previously the German political director, leading the German delegation at the Dayton peace talks. He started his career on the staff of the secretary-general of the United Nations in New York, was part of the Policy Planning Staff of the Federal Foreign Office, and worked at the German embassies in Washington and Paris. He serves on a number of boards and advisory councils of international and European institutions.

  • Igor Ivanov


    Igor Ivanov is the president of the Russian International Affairs Council and a professor at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. Previously, he served as Russia's minister of foreign affairs and secretary of the Security Council. Prior to those positions, he represented the Soviet Union and then the Russian Federation as ambassador to Spain. Ivanov has also worked as a researcher at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He has published a number of studies and articles on the history of Russian foreign affairs and foreign policy.

  • Sam Nunn

    United States

    Sam Nunn is co-chairman and chief executive officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative. He served as a senator from the state of Georgia for twenty-four years and is retired from the law firm King & Spalding. He previously served as a member of the Georgia House of Representatives. During his tenure in the Senate, Nunn served as chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee and on the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. He also served on the Intelligence and Small Business Committees. He is a distinguished professor in the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the chairman of the board of the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C.

  • Director

    Robert H. Legvold

    United States

    Robert H. Legvold is Marshall D. Shulman Professor Emeritus in the Department of Political Science at Columbia University, where he specializes in the international relations of the post-Soviet states and earlier served as director of Columbia's Harriman Institute. Legvold is a former trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and a member of various advisory boards, including those of the Committee on International Security Studies of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University, the Center for Global Politics at the Freie Universität Berlin, and the Foundation for International Peace and Democracy, led by Mikhail Gorbachev. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, where he recently directed the Academy's project, "Rethinking U.S. Policy toward Russia." He is also a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Social Sciences.

  • Members of the Commission

    Charles Boyd

    United States

    Charles Boyd is the Starr Distinguished National Security Fellow at the Center for the National Interest. He served as president of Business Executives for National Security (BENS) from 2002 to 2010. Before joining BENS, he served as senior vice president and Washington program director of the Council on Foreign Relations. He retired from the United States Air Force in 1995 as a four-star general and deputy commander in chief of the U.S.-European Command. He previously served in NATO's Southern and Central Commands. Following his retirement from active duty, he was director of the 21st Century International Legislators Project for the Congressional Institute, a strategy consultant to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and executive director of the Hart-Rudman National Security Commission.

  • Desmond Browne

    United Kingdom

    Desmond Browne is a British Labour Party politician who was a member of Parliament for Kilmarnock and Loudoun from 1997 to 2010, and a member of the cabinet under Tony Blair and Gordon Brown. After holding successive ministerial posts, he served as secretary of state for defense from 2006 to 2008. Currently, he is the convenor of the Top Level Group of UK Parliamentarians for Multilateral Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation and convenor of the Executive Board for the European Leadership Network for Multilateral Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation.

  • Hikmet Çetin


    Hikmet Çetin is a former minister of foreign affairs of Turkey. His political career began after his election to Parliament in 1977 as a member of the Republican People's Party (CHP). He was appointed deputy prime minister in 1978. After being reelected to the Parliament from the Social Democratic People's Party (SHP), Çetin worked at various executive levels within the SHP, including as secretary-general. In 1991, he was reelected to the Parliament and later served as minister of foreign affairs in the two coalition governments between 1991 and 1994. Following the merger of CHP and SHP, he was elected chairman by the joint convention of both parties. He was once again appointed minister of state and deputy prime minister in 1995 and was elected speaker of the Turkish Grand National Assembly in 1997. In 2003, he was appointed as NATO senior civilian representative for Afghanistan and served in Kabul until 2006.

  • Oleksandr Chalyi


    Oleksandr Chalyi served as foreign affairs adviser to the Ukrainian president from 2006 to 2008. Prior to assuming this position, he was first deputy foreign minister from 1998 to 2001 and again from 2002 to 2004; state secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on European integration issues (2001–2002); and the permanent representative to the Council of Europe (2001). Chalyi also served as ambassador to Romania (1995–1998) and as head of the Department for Treaties and Legal Affairs in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1993–1995). He holds the diplomatic rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and is an Honored Lawyer of Ukraine. Chalyi graduated from Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev in 1977 with a degree in international law and holds a PhD in law.

  • Alexander Dynkin


    Alexander Dynkin serves as director of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is a professor of economics and a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Since 2008, Dynkin has served on the Presidential Council for Science, Technology, and Education, and has been a member of the board of trustees of the Institute of Contemporary Development. From 1998 to 1999, he was the economic adviser to the Russian prime minister. In 1994 and 1996, he was a visiting professor at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.

  • Viktor Esin


    Viktor Esin is adviser to the commander in chief of the Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation. He also serves as first vice president of the Academy of Security, Defense and Law and Order. Esin is a retired colonel general in the Russian armed forces, and as such served as chief of the General Staff of the Strategic Rocket Forces, deputy chief of staff of the Presidential Defense Council, and head of the Russian Security Council. He is a graduate of the General Staff Academy and the Dzerzhinsky Military Academy.

  • Herman Gref


    Herman Gref graduated from the law department of Omsk State University with a degree in jurisprudence. He served in the Soviet armed forces in the 1980s, and in 1991, he joined the administration of the Petrodvorets district of St. Petersburg. From 1994 to 1997, he worked for the Committee for Economic Development and Property of the St. Petersburg municipal government. In 1998, he became a member of the advisory council of the Ministry of State Property and later that year became first deputy minister. In 1999, he became director of the government's oversight commission for the Russian Federal Bankruptcy Service and in 2000, was named director of the Center of Strategic Research. From 2000 to 2007, he served as minister of economic development and trade. Since 2007, he has been president and chairman of the board of Sberbank.

  • István Gyarmati


    István Gyarmati, a former diplomat, is president and chief executive officer of the International Center for Democratic Transition and the Tom Lantos Institute in Budapest. His career has spanned numerous postings in the Foreign Affairs and Defense Ministries. His positions have included deputy state secretary of integration, Ministry of Defense; undersecretary of policy, Ministry of Defense; chairman of the Missile Technology Control Regime; special adviser to the minister of foreign affairs; chairman of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons; and senior vice president of the EastWest Institute.

  • Stephen Hadley

    United States

    Stephen Hadley is the senior adviser for international affairs at the United States Institute of Peace and a principal at the RiceHadley Group. From 2005 to 2009, he served as national security adviser under President George W. Bush. In addition to serving as the principal White House foreign policy adviser and director of the National Security Council staff, he also ran the interagency national security policy development and execution process. Prior to that post, he served as deputy national security adviser and as a senior foreign and defense policy adviser to George W. Bush during his first presidential campaign. He served as assistant secretary of defense under George H. W. Bush, was a partner in the Shea & Gardner law firm, and a principal in the Scowcroft Group. He graduated magna cum laude from Cornell University and holds a law degree from Yale Law School.

  • Tedo Japaridze


    Tedo Japaridze is a former foreign minister and national security adviser of Georgia. He is currently the director of the Center for Energy and Environmental Security at the Azerbaijan Diplomatic Academy. Formerly, he served as director general at the International Center for Black Sea Studies in Athens. Japaridze has held many positions in the Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs including: first deputy chairman of the UNESCO Council; head of the Department of Political Analysis and Information; head of the Department of Political Analysis and Prognostication; deputy minister of foreign affairs; and first deputy minister of foreign affairs. He was also the assistant to the chairman of the National Security and Defense Council, ambassador to the United States, and assistant to the president on security issues at the National Security Council.

  • Donald J. Johnston


    Donald J. Johnston, P.C., O.C., Q.C., is senior counsel to preeminent Canadian law firm Heenan Blaikie LLP, of which he was founding partner in 1973 (Johnston Heenan Blaikie). Johnston has had an active political career as a senior cabinet member of the Pierre Trudeau and John Turner governments, including as minister of state for economic and regional development, minister of science and technology, minister of justice, and attorney general. He was elected president of the Liberal Party of Canada in 1990. In 1994, he was elected secretary-general of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the first non-European to hold that post. He stepped down after two five-year terms and returned to Heenan Blaikie in 2006. He chaired the International Risk Governance Council in Geneva from 2006 until 2010 and was a Distinguished Visiting Professor at Yonsei University in Seoul from 2006 until 2009. He is the chair of the McCall MacBain Foundation in Geneva.

  • Catherine Kelleher

    United States

    Catherine Kelleher is a College Park Professor in the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland and a senior fellow at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University. She is an expert on U.S., European, and Russian security issues and arms control. Kelleher served as President Bill Clinton's deputy assistant secretary of defense for Russia, Ukraine, and Eurasia and as representative of the secretary of defense to NATO in Brussels. She was on President Jimmy Carter's National Security Council staff and was the first president of Women in International Security. Kelleher also founded the Center for International and Security Studies at the University of Maryland.

  • John Kerr

    United Kingdom

    John Kerr is deputy chair of Royal Dutch Shell PLC. A former diplomat, he has served as ambassador to the United States, UK permanent representative to the European Union, and head of the Diplomatic Service. Previously, he served as private secretary to the permanent undersecretary at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, principal private secretary to the chancellor of the exchequer, and head and assistant undersecretary of state at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

  • John C. Kornblum

    United States

    John C. Kornblum is senior counsel at Nörr Stiefenhofer Lutz in Berlin and former chair of Lazard and Company in Germany. He served as U.S. ambassador to Germany from 1997 to 2001 and was the special envoy for the Dayton Peace Agreement. A career diplomat, he served as minister and deputy commandant in Berlin, was chosen as deputy permanent representative to NATO, and was ambassador to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. He served as chief of the American delegation to the 1992 Helsinki Review Conference.

  • Jacques Lanxade


    Jacques Lanxade is chairman of the Académie de Marine and president of the Mediterranean Foundation for Strategic Research. A retired admiral in the French navy, he served as chief of the Defense Staff of the Armed Forces from 1991 to 1995. Prior to this, he was appointed as a strategic adviser to the French president from 1989 to 1991. He also served as ambassador to Tunisia from 1995 until 1999.

  • Vladimir Lukin


    Vladimir Lukin is the Russian president's human rights ombudsman and a former ambassador to the United States. He previously served as deputy chairman of the Duma and as chairman of the Duma's Foreign Affairs Committee. Lukin was a member of the editorial board of the international journal World Review in Prague but was recalled to the USSR in 1968 for protesting the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. From 1969 to 1987, Lukin was a research fellow at the Institute of U.S. and Canadian Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He then served in the Soviet Union's Foreign Ministry as deputy head of the Foreign Policy Analysis and Prognosis Department until 1990, when he was elected as a People's Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. There he served as chairman of the Supreme Soviet Committee on International Affairs and Foreign Economic Relations.

  • Klaus Mangold


    Klaus Mangold studied law and economics at the universities of Munich, Geneva, London, Heidelberg, and Mainz and has held various positions in German industry. He is chairman of the Supervisory Board of Rothschild GmbH, Frankfurt, and was chairman of the Committee on Eastern European Economic Relations of German Industry until the end of 2010. After serving as a member of the Board of Management of DaimlerChrysler AG from 1995 to 2003, he became chairman of the Supervisory Board of TUI AG, Germany. He has also served as a member of a number of supervisory and advisory boards, including those of Alstom SA, France; Foster + Partners, Great Britain; Ernst & Young, United States; Metro AG, E.ON AG, and Continental AG, Germany. Mangold has been Honorary Consul of the Russian Federation for Baden-Württemberg since 2005.

  • Richard Matzke

    United States

    Richard Matzke is president of NESW Solutions, a member of the board of directors of OAO LUKOIL, Eurasia Drilling Company, and PHI Inc., and former vice chairman of Chevron Corporation. Matzke retired from Chevron in February 2002, having served as vice chairman of the board since January 2000 and as a member of the board of directors since 1997. From November 1989 through December 1999, Matzke served as president of Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., where he was responsible for directing Chevron's oil exploration and production activities outside of North America. Matzke was employed by Chevron Corporation and its predecessors and affiliates from 1961 through his retirement in 2002.

  • René Nyberg


    René Nyberg became the chief executive officer of the East Office of Finnish Industries in April 2008. Nyberg joined the Finnish Ministry of Education in 1969 after completing a degree in political science at the University of Helsinki. Two years later, he moved to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, where he served in various capacities in Moscow, Leningrad, Brussels, Bonn, Vienna (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe), and Berlin. His areas of expertise include Russian affairs and security policy. In 2000, he was appointed ambassador to the Russian Federation, a position he held until 2004. From 2004 to 2008 he served as ambassador to Germany.

  • Adam Daniel Rotfeld


    Adam Daniel Rotfeld is a former minister of foreign affairs of Poland. Presently, he is the co-chairman of the Polish-Russian Group on Difficult Matters. Rotfeld served as a researcher at the Polish Institute of International Affairs in Warsaw and participated in the 1973 Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. He was director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute from 1991 to 2002 and in this capacity was appointed personal representative of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe's chairman on a political solution to the conflict on the left bank of the Dniester River in Moldova. Since 2006, he has been an appointed member of the United Nations secretary-general's Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. Presently, Rotfeld is a professor at the University of Warsaw.

  • Volker Rühe


    Volker Rühe joined the German Christian Democratic Union in 1963, was elected to the Bundestag representing his home city of Hamburg in 1976, and served until 2005. He held the position of secretary-general of his party from 1989 until 1992, including during the period of German reunification. He assumed office as minister of defense in 1992 and served in this position until 1998. From 2002 to 2005, he served as chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee of the German Bundestag. In 2005, he stepped down from Parliament and currently works for international think tanks, gives lectures, and works as a consultant both nationally and internationally.

  • Armen Sarkissian


    Armen Sarkissian served as prime minister of Armenia from 1996 until 1997. He is currently chair of the Knightsbridge Group, founder and director of the Eurasia Center at the Judge Business School at Cambridge University, and founding president of Eurasia House International. Sarkissian is also chairman of the Global Agenda Council on Energy Security at the World Economic Forum, a member of the Dean's Advisory Board at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government; a member of the Dean's Advisory Board at the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago; and a board member of the Global Leadership Foundation. In October 1991, after joining the diplomatic service, Sarkissian established the first Armenian embassy in the West, in London. He went on to become Armenia's senior ambassador to Europe (deputy foreign minister) and concurrently served as ambassador to the European Union, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the Vatican. In 1995 and 1996, he was the Armenian head of mission to Europe. He was reappointed ambassador to the United Kingdom in 1998.

  • Vyacheslav Trubnikov


    Vyacheslav Trubnikov is a former deputy foreign minister, former director of the Foreign Intelligence Service, and a retired general of the army of Russia. He graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations in 1967 and began his career with the Foreign Intelligence Service. From 1971 to 1977, he worked in India as a correspondent for RIA Novosti. From 1977 to 1984, he was employed in the central office of the First Chief Directorate and from 1990 to 1991 served as the chief of the Southeast Asia Department of the Foreign Intelligence Service. In 1992 he became the first deputy to the director of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service and in 1996 was promoted to director. From June 2000 to July 2004, he worked as a first deputy to the foreign minister. In July 2004 he was appointed by then Russian president Vladimir Putin to the post of ambassador to India, a position he held until August 2009.

Contact EASI staff at EASI@ceip.org.

Euro-Atlantic Security Initiative has been made possible by funding from the Robert Bosch Stiftung, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Hurford Foundation, the Robert & Ardis James Foundation, the Nuclear Threat Initiative, and the Starr Foundation, and by support from the Institute of the World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the United World International Foundation.
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