A dominant narrative, especially in Washington, is that China extends its global influence by exporting its developmental model and imposing it on other countries. But China also extends its influence by working through local actors and institutions while adapting and assimilating local and traditional forms, norms, and practices. With the generous support of the Ford Foundation, Carnegie has launched an innovative body of research on Chinese engagement in seven regions of the world—Africa, Central Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and North Africa, the Pacific, South Asia, and Southeast Asia—exploring these adaptive Chinese strategies that work within local realities and are mostly ignored by Western policymakers.

  • Research

    How China’s Foreign Aid Fosters Social Bonds With Central Asian Ruling Elites

    • Nargis Kassenova
    • December 07, 2022

    The marriage of material gifts to interpersonal elite social bonds is a distinctive feature of China’s approach to Central Asia—one that resonates with local traditions and practices. This characteristic contrasts starkly with the approach preferred by the transatlantic West, which has tended to anchor its engagement with Central Asia in political norms and principles.

  • Research

    China Is Playing by Turkey’s Media Rules

    • Çağdaş Üngör
    • November 09, 2022

    Turkey has few explicitly pro-China voices. In response, the Chinese regime has opted for soft power strategies that leverage Turkish political players and seek a synergy with local media actors.

  • Research

    What China Is Learning From West African Managerial Practices

    • Abdoulkadre Ado
    • October 27, 2022

    Investing in joint ventures has enabled Chinese cultural adaptation by emphasizing training programs in languages commonly spoken in West Africa, embracing local African management styles, and assimilating some local practices.

  • Research

    Why Brazil Sought Chinese Investments to Diversify Its Manufacturing Economy

    • Celio Hiratuka
    • October 18, 2022

    Some Chinese firms have sought to localize to meet Brazil’s stringent local content requirements. This has yielded mixed results. Brazil must craft a long-term strategy for its economic relationship with China to increase the odds that bilateral engagement can advance in a new and more sustainable, mutually beneficial direction.

  • Event

    Localization and China’s Tech Success on Two Continents

    Join Carnegie for a conversation about how local players have fared in three Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian countries—Algeria, Egypt, and Indonesia—in pushing Chinese technology firms to meet their developmental needs.

  • Research

    Localization and China’s Tech Success in Indonesia

    • Gatra PriyanditaDirk van der KleyBenjamin Herscovitch
    • July 11, 2022

    Despite ambivalence about Chinese intentions in Indonesia’s political and defense establishment, Chinese telecoms firms have successfully used strategies of localization to position themselves as trusted cybersecurity providers to the country.

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