After a decade of democratic deepening, South Asia is experiencing a period of democratic backsliding. Incumbent governments are wielding a variety of tools—from populism to digital repression and violence—to further entrench their power. But democracy is as much about opposition as it is about government. A new Carnegie project on the politics of opposition in South Asia shines a spotlight on actors challenging the status quo from the outside—from political parties and civil society to social movements and armed actors. Unpacking opposition dynamics helps explain the consolidation of autocratic governance in the region, gauge the possibilities of democratic renewal, and understand the dynamics of armed conflict.

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