The military is woven into almost every part of Egypt’s economy. It runs businesses, produces goods, and manages huge infrastructure projects. What are the consequences of involving a country’s armed forces so deeply in its private and public enterprise?
The Egyptian military’s takeover in 2013 transformed its role in the national economy, turning it into an autonomous actor that can reshape markets and influence government policy setting and investment strategies.
The Kremlin is riding high in the Middle East, where Russia’s military intervention in Syria has changed the course of the country’s civil war. The Kremlin’s actions in the Middle East have deep historical roots, but potential Russian influence should not be over-exaggerated.
As President Joko Widodo looks ahead to his second-term inaugural next month, huge challenges lie ahead and some contradictions remain unresolved, including latent social cleavages, the evolving role of Islam in political life, and tough economic choices.
The potential is clear for both India and Indonesia to transform their demographic booms into engines of domestic demand while positioning themselves as alternatives to China for labor-intensive manufacturing.
Nonresident Scholar Geoeconomics and Strategy Program
Rozlyn C. Engel is a nonresident scholar in the Geoeconomics and Strategy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where she focuses on macroeconomic risks, U.S. economic policy (foreign and domestic), long-term economic trends shaping the global security landscape, and economic intelligence analysis.
Evan A. Feigenbaum is vice president for studies at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he oversees research in Washington, Beijing and New Delhi on a dynamic region encompassing both East Asia and South Asia.
Nonresident Fellow Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program
Steven Feldstein is a nonresident fellow in Carnegie’s Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program, where he focuses on issues of democracy, technology, human rights, U.S. foreign policy, conflict trends, and Africa.
Hamza Meddeb is a nonresident scholar at the Carnegie Middle East Center, where his research focuses on economic reform, political economy of conflicts, and border insecurity across the Middle East and North Africa.
Paul Stronski is a senior fellow in Carnegie’s Russia and Eurasia Program, where his research focuses on the relationship between Russia and neighboring countries in Central Asia and the South Caucasus.