The U.S. government and private sector are still not sufficiently agile to keep up with cyber threats.
Three potential paths have emerged for future efforts to develop norms for state behavior in cyberspace.
Cyberspace has become the new battleground for geopolitics. State-hacker relationships could unleash significant harm undermining global security, stability, and human rights.
Coalition of countries accuse Russia of being responsible for NotPetya ransomware.
As cyberspace has emerged as a new frontier for geopolitics, states have become entrepreneurial in their sponsorship, deployment, and exploitation of hackers as proxies to project power.
Cyber, like the nuclear field, is now a leading means through which international relations play out today.
The story of Karim Baratov and Alexsey Belan provides insight into proxy relationships between the Russian state and hackers.
Many states are employing ostensibly independent hackers as proxies to project influence both domestically and overseas.
Many states outsource their cyber operations to non-state actors, with varying degrees of control over their actions. The crisis in Ukraine is a perfect example of this phenomenon.
To understand how Iran uses cyber proxies, it’s important to understand how Tehran thinks about cyber security in the first place.