Cyber deterrence frameworks that draw from the traditional nuclear deterrence literature and the logic of deterrence by punishment are mismatched to deterrence challenges in cyberspace. Instead, a better approach would be deterrence by denial.
Major powers bear responsibility for reducing systemic risk in cyberspace, and to do this they must make offensive operations more predictable.
News of the SolarWinds hack emerged with reports the incident had triggered an emergency Saturday meeting at the National Security Council. In the weeks that followed, the story dominated headlines.
In calling out China’s involvement in cyber attacks on Microsoft email servers, the United States and its allies missed a chance to preempt Beijing’s tit-for-tat response. Here’s how they could regroup.
U.S. allies have joined Washington in voicing concerns about Chinese cyber behavior after the Microsoft Exchange hack. But lingering differences between the partners could still blunt an effective response.
Digital tools offer many uses, both for civic activists to communicate with like-minded individuals to protest governments, as well as for regimes to track dissenters and government critics (and to act accordingly).
An Israeli company has sold military-grade surveillance spyware to governments that are using it to spy on private citizens. What can the United States do about the explosion of such snooping?
A U.S.-Russian bilateral agreement on cyberattacks against financial integrity would be an important first step that could help build confidence to make progress on other, more challenging areas that affect the financial sector, such as collaboration around reigning in cyber-enabled financial crime.
A recent report suggests that China trails the United States in cyberspace. But Chinese leaders are eying a long-term strategy, so Western governments would be wise not to underestimate Beijing.
China’s new digital currency, the e-CNY, could give Beijing valuable information about financial transactions and be used by Chinese firms to sidestep U.S. sanctions. But in order for it to meet lofty ambitions, there are some tricky structural questions that must be worked out first.