Toby Dalton

Nuclear Policy Program
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Dalton is the co-director of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment. An expert on nonproliferation and nuclear energy, his research focuses on cooperative nuclear security initiatives and the management of nuclear challenges in South Asia and East Asia.


PhD, George Washington University 
MA, University of Washington 
BA, Occidental College


English; German


Toby Dalton is co-director of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment. An expert on nonproliferation and nuclear energy, his research focuses on cooperative nuclear security initiatives and the management of nuclear challenges in South Asia and East Asia.

Dalton is author of “Beyond Incrementalism: Rethinking Approaches to CBMs and Stability in South Asia” (Stimson Center, 2013); co-author with Jaclyn Tandler of the Carnegie Paper “Understanding the Arms ‘Race’ in South Asia”; and co-author with Mark Hibbs and George Perkovich of the Carnegie Policy Outlook “A Criteria-Based Approach to Nuclear Cooperation with Pakistan.”

From 2002 to 2010, Dalton served in a variety of high-level positions at the U.S. Department of Energy, including acting director for the Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security and senior policy adviser to the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security on issues relating to International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards, the nonproliferation regime, and a range of countries, such as Pakistan, India, China, North Korea, and Israel. He also established and led the department’s office at the U.S. embassy in Pakistan, managing critical bilateral and multilateral nonproliferation issues and overseeing the implementation of U.S. nonproliferation and counterproliferation initiatives.

Dalton previously served as professional staff member to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, a Luce Scholar at the Institute for Far Eastern Studies in Seoul, a research associate at the National Bureau of Asian Research, and a project associate for the Carnegie Nuclear Policy Program.

He has authored numerous op-eds and journal articles and contributed to the books Understanding New Political Realities in Seoul: Working toward a Common Approach to Strengthen U.S.-Korea Relations (the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation, 2008) and The Future of U.S.-Korea-Japan Relations: Balancing Values and Interests (CSIS, 2002).

  • South Asian Voices May 26, 2016
    What’s the Future of CBMs in South Asia?

    It is important that scholars and practitioners from the region think about the evolution of deterrence between India and Pakistan and how nuclear confidence building measures can contribute to stability.

  • Paper May 19, 2016
    India’s Nuclear Options and Escalation Dominance

    The growing prominence of nuclear weapons in Pakistan’s national security strategy casts a shadow of nuclear use over any potential military strategy India might consider to strike this balance. However, augmenting its nuclear options with tactical nuclear weapons is unlikely to bolster Indian deterrence in convincing ways.

  • Article April 27, 2016
    South Korea Debates Nuclear Options

    North Korea’s nuclear test led some South Koreans to renew calls for a nuclear option. Interpreting Seoul’s signals will be challenging for U.S. policymakers.

  • Diplomat April 13, 2016
    Assessing Obama’s Nuclear Legacy

    President Obama framed a very ambitious nuclear agenda at the outset of his administration that, in retrospect, was vulnerable to foreign and domestic forces that rendered progress on parts of the agenda simply unachievable.

  • Op-Ed Diplomat February 23, 2016
    South Korea’s Nuclear Energy Future

    Rising national concerns about nuclear safety and decreasing support for building new power plants, coupled with general distrust of government, pose a critical challenge to Korea’s nuclear future.

  • Center for Nonproliferation Studies February 1, 2016
    Strengthening the ROK-U.S. Nuclear Partnership

    South Korea and the United States have become essential partners on nuclear matters over the last forty years. However, as with all maturing relationships, there remain differences of view and priority that must be managed.

  • Atlantic Council Discussion December 14, 2015
    The Wisdom of a Grand Nuclear Bargain With Pakistan

    Policy options for a potential grand nuclear bargain between the U.S. and Pakistan remain a contested topic of discourse with serious implications for regional cooperation and security.

  • Op-Ed Council on Foreign Relations September 16, 2015
    Will South Korean Nuclear Leadership Make a Difference in 2016?

    South Korea will chair several major meetings of the international nonproliferation regime in the coming years. Will this drive the country to develop its nuclear expertise?

  • The Stimson Center and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace August 27, 2015
    A Normal Nuclear Pakistan

    Pakistan’s military leadership can choose to accept success in achieving a “strategic” deterrent against India, or it can choose to continue to compete with India in the pursuit of “full spectrum” deterrence.

  • Op-Ed Dawn August 27, 2015
    Nuclear Mainstream

    Pakistan’s path to join the mainstream of the international nuclear order faces many obstacles.

  • KCRW’s To the Point October 20, 2015
    Nuclear Weapons: The Pride of Pakistan

    Pakistan faces both nuclear security and deterrence stability challenges.

  • Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars March 29, 2012
    Securing 'Loose Nukes'

    Different regional actors had different agendas and priorities for the recent Seoul Nuclear Security Summit.


Nuclear Policy Conference 2015

Areas of Expertise

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
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