As cyberspace has emerged as a new frontier for geopolitics, states have become entrepreneurial in their sponsorship, deployment, and exploitation of hackers as proxies to project power.
The story of Karim Baratov and Alexsey Belan provides insight into proxy relationships between the Russian state and hackers.
Many states are employing ostensibly independent hackers as proxies to project influence both domestically and overseas.
Many states outsource their cyber operations to non-state actors, with varying degrees of control over their actions. The crisis in Ukraine is a perfect example of this phenomenon.
To understand how Iran uses cyber proxies, it’s important to understand how Tehran thinks about cyber security in the first place.
As cyberspace has emerged as the new frontier for geopolitics, states have become entrepreneurial in their sponsorship, deployment, and exploitation of hackers as proxies to project power.
The four-decade-long U.S.-Iran cold war has increasingly moved into cyberspace. Tehran has become increasingly adept at conducting cyber espionage and disruptive attacks against opponents at home and abroad.
Incidents involving Iran have been among the most sophisticated, costly, and consequential attacks in the history of the internet.
Efforts to promote international norms for cyberspace are more likely to succeed if their advocates clearly grasp and convey to other actors how norms tend to function in different global contexts.
Identifying the legal norms that apply in cyberspace remains highly challenging.
Carnegie’s Technology and International Affairs Program develops strategies to maximize the positive potential of emerging technologies while reducing risk of large-scale misuse or harm. With Carnegie’s global centers and an office in Silicon Valley, the program collaborates with technologists, corporate leaders, government officials, and scholars globally to understand and prepare for the implications of advances in cyberspace, biotechnology, and artificial intelligence.