Contact: Jennifer Linker, 202/939-2372,

Non-proliferation experts at the Carnegie Endowment have released a blueprint for a new, international nuclear non-proliferation regime, with a central theme of universal compliance with the norms and rules of a tougher nuclear non-proliferation policy. Compliance emphasizes enforcement over declarations of good intent. Universal means that norms and rules must be extended not just to treaty members but to all states (including the nuclear powers), and to individuals and corporations as well. Universal Compliance: A Strategy for Nuclear Security is available at

The authors will discuss the strategy on Thursday, March 3rd, an event which will be aired as a LIVE AT CARNEGIE audiocast on the web,

“The world has changed, but the regime has not changed with it. Fundamental problems must be addressed. In particular, enforcement must be taken more seriously. We propose that, for the first time, all players—including the nuclear powers, treaty signatories, Pakistan, India, and Israel, and the private sector—be part of the solution,” said Jessica Mathews, Carnegie president and report coauthor. Among the key innovations and recommendations of the strategy: 

  • End production of highly enriched uranium worldwide and adopt a pause in the separation of plutonium.
  • Accelerate “Global Cleanout” of nuclear materials from all vulnerable sites.
  • Ensure that a state withdrawing from the Non-Proliferation Treaty is still responsible for violations it committed while in the treaty, and prevent states withdrawing from the treaty from legally using nuclear assets acquired before their withdrawal.
  • Convene a high-level group to prevent nuclear terrorism that would establish a global standard for protecting weapons, materials, and facilities.
  • Develop voluntary standards with corporations and banks, committing them to block trade, loan, and investment activity that supports the illegal acquisition of nuclear capabilities.
  •  Persuade India, Israel, and Pakistan to accept the same nonproliferation obligations accepted by the five original nuclear weapon states.

The twenty-step priority action agenda is available on the web, along with all the obligations and recommendations. This is the final version of a report released for worldwide review in June, 2004; the authors consulted with experts and government officials in the United States and 20 countries across Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the former Soviet states, and Russia.

THE AUTHORS:  George Perkovich is vice president for studies; Jessica Mathews is president; Joseph Cirincione and Rose Gottemoeller are senior associates; and Jon B. Wolfsthal is an associate.