• Book
    Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War, 10th Year Anniversary Edition
    Thomas de Waal July 8, 2013 NYU Press

    Nearly 20 years since the 1994 ceasefire, Armenia and Azerbaijan have still failed to resolve their dispute and normalize relations.

  • Report
    Energy as a Building Block in Creating a Euro-Atlantic Security Community
    February 3, 2012 EASI Working Group Paper Русский

    Enhanced energy security is particularly important for a more cohesive security collaboration among the states of the Euro-Atlantic region.

  • Book
    Post-Imperium: A Eurasian Story
    Dmitri Trenin July 6, 2011 Washington

    Moscow needs to drop the notion of creating an exclusive power center in the post-Soviet space. Like other former European empires, Russia has no choice but to reinvent itself as a global player and as part of a wider community.

  • Book
    The Caucasus: An Introduction
    Thomas de Waal September 17, 2010 Oxford University Press

    While the Caucasus is too often treated as a subset of Russian history or as merely a gateway to Asia, it remains an important and combustible region, whose inner dynamics and history deserve a much more complex appreciation from the wider world.

  • Book
    Central Asia’s Second Chance
    Martha Brill Olcott August 10, 2005 Washington

    Early hopes for a democratic transition in Central Asia after the fall of the Soviet Union were dashed, but new hope was raised as the global community re-engaged with Central Asia in the wake of 9/11. Martha Brill Olcott explains how the region squandered its "second chance," and what might happen next.

  • Book
    Democracy Challenged: The Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism
    Marina Ottaway January 1, 2003 Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2003

    During the 1990s, international democracy promotion efforts led to the establishment of numerous regimes that cannot be easily classified as either authoritarian or democratic - semi-authoritarian regimes. These regimes pose a considerable challenge to U.S. policy makers because the superficial stability of semi-authoritarian regimes usually masks severe problems that could lead to future crises.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Economic Turmoil in the Caucasus
    Thomas de Waal February 27, 2015

    Devaluing its currency, Azerbaijan follows its neighbors into a time of economic struggle.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    The Karabakh Truce Under Threat
    Thomas de Waal February 12, 2015

    A worsening pattern of violence on the Karabakh ceasefire line increases the danger of a war by miscalculation in 2015.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Looking Back on 2014 (Part II)
    Thomas de Waal, Maxim Suchkov, Balázs Jarábik, Arkady Dubnov, Vinay Shukla, Petr Topychkanov, Alexander Gabuev, Nikolay Kozhanov December 31, 2014

    2014 was a year of crisis. Ebola, ISIS, and Donbas are now part of the global lexicon. Eurasia Outlook experts weigh in on how crises on Russia’s periphery affected the country, and what these developments mean for Moscow in 2015.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Regime Change Divides East and West
    Thomas de Waal December 17, 2014

    In the new ideological cleavage that has opened up between Vladimir Putin’s Russia and Western countries, one idea divides them like no other: the meaning of regime change.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Winners and Losers in the Black Sea Gas Game
    Thomas de Waal December 3, 2014

    Calling time on the South Stream pipeline project, Putin announced a new Black Sea pipeline to Turkey instead. The new project could be a competitor to Azerbaijan gas ambitions, but, at the same time, it may require more collaboration in the future.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Echoes of the Ukraine Crisis in the South Caucasus
    Maxim Suchkov October 24, 2014

    The Ukrainian crisis has shown to the South Caucasian states that deciding between European and Eurasian integration comes at a high price, but that indecisiveness is an even worse path.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Queuing for Russia’s Food Market
    Thomas de Waal October 1, 2014

    The list of countries wanting to take advantage of Western sanctions to boost their food exports to Russia has nothing in common but the desire to gain a new market.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Putin Brings Armenian and Azeri Leaders Together, But No Solution to Karabakh in Sight
    Alexey Malashenko August 14, 2014

    The Sochi meeting between Russia’s, Armenia’s, and Azerbaijan’s presidents is but one episode in the series of Russia’s protracted peacemaking efforts. Rather, the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict serves as a great pretext for Russia’s presence in the South Caucasus.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Out of Ideas in Sochi
    Thomas de Waal August 13, 2014

    Putin enjoyed his moment in the media limelight as a peace-maker over Karabakh. But the lack of substance from the summit suggests that Russia is as out of ideas as anyone else on the Karabakh conflict.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Karabakh’s Guns of August
    Thomas de Waal August 5, 2014

    The ceasefire in Nagorny Karabakh has been violated multiple times over the last few days. Without a more substantial peace process that both Armenia and Azerbaijan can buy into, the violence is all too likely to re-occur.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    Remembering Stalin
    Thomas de Waal March 5, 2013 BBC World News

    The figure of Stalin still provokes many positive reactions in the former Soviet Union.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    Tensions Between Armenia and Azerbaijan
    Thomas de Waal February 28, 2013 Voice of America

    The situation in the South Caucasus continues to be perilous as leaders of both Armenia and Azerbaijan find themselves increasingly boxed in by domestic political constraints.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    Smoldering Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict Could Re-Erupt
    Thomas de Waal June 5, 2012 BBC World News

    The unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan has the potential to flare up again as tensions mount on their interstate border.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    The Caucasus: History Needn't Repeat
    Thomas de Waal December 11, 2010 ABC Radio's Saturday Extra

    While the nations of the Caucasus are heavily influenced by historical narratives of intractable ethnic conflicts, a more critical look at the region’s history reveals a number of surprising alliances and pragmatic resolutions.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    Unrest in the Caucasus
    Maria Lipman August 18, 2009 Al Jazeera's Inside Story

    As violence in the North Caucasus surges, Kremlin policies and its loyal, but brutal, local leaders have played a critical role in causing the situation.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    Azerbaijan's President Visits Washington
    Michelle Kelemen April 28, 2006 National Public Radio

    Martha Brill Olcott discusses U.S.-Azeri relations with NPR's Michelle Kelemen.


Carnegie Experts on Azerbaijan

  • Bayram Balci
    Nonresident Scholar
    Russia and Eurasia Program

    Balci is a nonresident scholar in Carnegie’s Russia and Eurasia Program, where his research focuses on Turkey and Turkish foreign policy in Central Asia and the Caucasus.

  • Alexander Baunov
    Senior Associate
    Editor in Chief of
    Moscow Center

    Baunov is a senior associate at the Carnegie Moscow Center and editor in chief of

  • James Collins
    Senior Associate, Russia and Eurasia Program;
    Diplomat in Residence

    Ambassador Collins was the U.S. ambassador to the Russian Federation from 1997 to 2001 and is an expert on the former Soviet Union, its successor states, and the Middle East.

  • Thomas de Waal
    Senior Associate
    Russia and Eurasia Program

    De Waal is a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment, specializing primarily in the South Caucasus region comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia and their breakaway territories as well as the wider Black Sea region.

  • Stefan Lehne
    Visiting Scholar
    Carnegie Europe

    Lehne is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels, where his research focuses on the post–Lisbon Treaty development of the European Union’s foreign policy, with a specific focus on relations between the EU and member states.

  • Alexey Malashenko
    Scholar in Residence
    Religion, Society, and Security Program
    Moscow Center

    Malashenko is the chair of the Carnegie Moscow Center’s Religion, Society, and Security Program. He also taught at the Higher School of Economics from 2007 to 2008 and was a professor at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations from 2000 to 2006.

  • Paul Stronski
    Senior Associate, Russia and Eurasia Program

    Paul Stronski is a senior associate in Carnegie’s Russia and Eurasia Program, where his research focuses on the relationship between Russia and neighboring countries in Central Asia and the South Caucasus.

  • Dmitri Trenin
    Moscow Center

    Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center, has been with the center since its inception. He also chairs the research council and the Foreign and Security Policy Program.


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