• Book
    Great Catastrophe: Armenians and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide
    Thomas de Waal January 27, 2015 Oxford University Press video

    Although it is now a century old, the issue of what most of the world calls the Armenian Genocide of 1915 is still a live and divisive issue that mobilizes Armenians across the world, shapes the identity and politics of modern Turkey, and has consumed the attention of U.S. politicians for years.

  • Book
    Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War, 10th Year Anniversary Edition
    Thomas de Waal July 8, 2013 NYU Press

    Nearly 20 years since the 1994 ceasefire, Armenia and Azerbaijan have still failed to resolve their dispute and normalize relations.

  • Report
    Energy as a Building Block in Creating a Euro-Atlantic Security Community
    February 3, 2012 EASI Working Group Paper Русский

    Enhanced energy security is particularly important for a more cohesive security collaboration among the states of the Euro-Atlantic region.

  • Book
    Post-Imperium: A Eurasian Story
    Dmitri Trenin July 6, 2011 Washington

    Moscow needs to drop the notion of creating an exclusive power center in the post-Soviet space. Like other former European empires, Russia has no choice but to reinvent itself as a global player and as part of a wider community.

  • Policy Outlook
    Armenia and Turkey: Bridging the Gap
    Thomas de Waal October 5, 2010

    While there is virtually no hope that the 2009 Armenian–Turkish Protocols will be ratified soon, both parties should take steps to rebuild confidence and affirm their faith in the process.

  • Book
    The Caucasus: An Introduction
    Thomas de Waal September 17, 2010 Oxford University Press

    While the Caucasus is too often treated as a subset of Russian history or as merely a gateway to Asia, it remains an important and combustible region, whose inner dynamics and history deserve a much more complex appreciation from the wider world.

  • Report
    Post-Soviet Free Trade
    Anders Aslund June 28, 2003

    Ever since the Soviet Union collapsed, the independent states that emerged from the wreckage have tried to sort out their trade relations. But the flow of goods between countries continues to contract even more than it should. What is needed is free trade.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Armenia, Turkey Clashing Over April 24
    Thomas de Waal March 11, 2015

    The Turkish government’s decision to hold a ceremony to commemorate the Gallipoli battles on April 24, in competition with the Armenian commemorations in Yerevan, looks like a political mistake.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    A Warning for Moscow: The Armenian-Turkish Protocols
    Maxim Suchkov March 5, 2015

    Russia should be watchful of future Armenian-Turkish relations. It should begin to formulate a long-term strategy that could marry its own interests toward the two important states of Turkey and Armenia.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Economic Turmoil in the Caucasus
    Thomas de Waal February 27, 2015

    Devaluing its currency, Azerbaijan follows its neighbors into a time of economic struggle.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    The Karabakh Truce Under Threat
    Thomas de Waal February 12, 2015

    A worsening pattern of violence on the Karabakh ceasefire line increases the danger of a war by miscalculation in 2015.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Prospects for Turkey’s New “Armenia Opening” and Russia’s Concerns
    Pavel Shlykov January 29, 2015

    Recently the normalization of Turkish-Armenian relations has drawn the attention of both Turkish and world media. However, current activities around the “Armenian question” failed to create solid ground for real compromise between the two states.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Armenia: Aftermath of a Massacre
    Thomas de Waal January 28, 2015

    The political fallout of the horrible murders in Gyumri will not result in a strategic re-orientation by Armenia away from Russia. However, it will undermine public support for Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan and his government.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Looking Back on 2014 (Part II)
    Thomas de Waal, Maxim Suchkov, Balázs Jarábik, Arkady Dubnov, Vinay Shukla, Petr Topychkanov, Alexander Gabuev, Nikolay Kozhanov December 31, 2014

    2014 was a year of crisis. Ebola, ISIS, and Donbas are now part of the global lexicon. Eurasia Outlook experts weigh in on how crises on Russia’s periphery affected the country, and what these developments mean for Moscow in 2015.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Regime Change Divides East and West
    Thomas de Waal December 17, 2014

    In the new ideological cleavage that has opened up between Vladimir Putin’s Russia and Western countries, one idea divides them like no other: the meaning of regime change.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    The Drivers of Russian Policy in the Post-Soviet Space
    Maxim Suchkov November 24, 2014

    As Russia and the West enter a period of prolonged mutual resentment and distrust, the post-Soviet space remains the most volatile issue in their relationship.

  • Eurasia Outlook
    Echoes of the Ukraine Crisis in the South Caucasus
    Maxim Suchkov October 24, 2014

    The Ukrainian crisis has shown to the South Caucasian states that deciding between European and Eurasian integration comes at a high price, but that indecisiveness is an even worse path.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    Armenia, the Eurasian Customs Union, and the Future
    Thomas de Waal January 13, 2014 Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

    There are still many questions about Armenia’s future in the Russia-led Eurasian Customs Union, as well as the future of the union itself.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    Remembering Stalin
    Thomas de Waal March 5, 2013 BBC World News

    The figure of Stalin still provokes many positive reactions in the former Soviet Union.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    Tensions Between Armenia and Azerbaijan
    Thomas de Waal February 28, 2013 Voice of America

    The situation in the South Caucasus continues to be perilous as leaders of both Armenia and Azerbaijan find themselves increasingly boxed in by domestic political constraints.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    Smoldering Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict Could Re-Erupt
    Thomas de Waal June 5, 2012 BBC World News

    The unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan has the potential to flare up again as tensions mount on their interstate border.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    The Caucasus: History Needn't Repeat
    Thomas de Waal December 11, 2010 ABC Radio's Saturday Extra

    While the nations of the Caucasus are heavily influenced by historical narratives of intractable ethnic conflicts, a more critical look at the region’s history reveals a number of surprising alliances and pragmatic resolutions.

  • TV/Radio Broadcast
    Unrest in the Caucasus
    Maria Lipman August 18, 2009 Al Jazeera's Inside Story

    As violence in the North Caucasus surges, Kremlin policies and its loyal, but brutal, local leaders have played a critical role in causing the situation.


Carnegie Experts on Armenia

  • Alexander Baunov
    Senior Associate
    Editor in Chief of
    Moscow Center

    Baunov is a senior associate at the Carnegie Moscow Center and editor in chief of

  • James Collins
    Senior Associate, Russia and Eurasia Program;
    Diplomat in Residence

    Ambassador Collins was the U.S. ambassador to the Russian Federation from 1997 to 2001 and is an expert on the former Soviet Union, its successor states, and the Middle East.

  • Thomas de Waal
    Senior Associate
    Russia and Eurasia Program

    De Waal is a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment, specializing primarily in the South Caucasus region comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia and their breakaway territories as well as the wider Black Sea region.

  • Stefan Lehne
    Visiting Scholar
    Carnegie Europe

    Lehne is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels, where his research focuses on the post–Lisbon Treaty development of the European Union’s foreign policy, with a specific focus on relations between the EU and member states.

  • Alexey Malashenko
    Scholar in Residence
    Religion, Society, and Security Program
    Moscow Center

    Malashenko is the chair of the Carnegie Moscow Center’s Religion, Society, and Security Program. He also taught at the Higher School of Economics from 2007 to 2008 and was a professor at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations from 2000 to 2006.

  • Paul Stronski
    Senior Associate, Russia and Eurasia Program

    Paul Stronski is a senior associate in Carnegie’s Russia and Eurasia Program, where his research focuses on the relationship between Russia and neighboring countries in Central Asia and the South Caucasus.

  • Dmitri Trenin
    Moscow Center

    Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center, has been with the center since its inception. He also chairs the research council and the Foreign and Security Policy Program.


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