Kathleen Newland reviews four major elements of the U.S. refugee program--resettlement, temporary protection, first asylum, and emergency response--and argues that, as practiced, these do not add up to a coherent refugee policy. Minimizing the need for refugee protection should be the central thrust of post-Cold War U.S. refugee policy. Nonetheless, the difficulty of preventing or resolving refugee-producing conflicts means that robust U.S. leadership in providing protection is still urgently needed.