Like the Cold War, the war against terrorism will be a very long struggle in which ideological, political, and socioeconomic campaigns will be as important as military campaigns. Carnegie senior associate Anatol Lieven argues that, to achieve any kind of long-term success, the United States must combat not only the terrorist groups themselves, but also the wider movements that give them support and shelter. Furthermore, it is extremely important that U.S. policy makers learn the lessons of the Cold War. Above all, this means recognition of the ways in which various radical Islamist movements, like the communist movements of the past, are fueled by nationalism. Lieven writes that understanding this will help the United States to seek allies in the Muslim world and should also lead to new U.S. approaches to the Arab-Israeli peace process.

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About the Author
Anatol Lieven
is senior associate for foreign and security policy in the Russian and Eurasian Program of the Carnegie Endowment. He was previously editor of Strategic Comments at the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Among his publications are Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power, The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Path to Independence, and Ukraine and Russia: A Fraternal Rivalry, which are largely based on his work as a correspondent for the Times of London in the former Soviet Union from 1990 to 1996. He was also correspondent for the Times in Pakistan and covered the Afghan war from the side of the anti-Soviet Mujahedin. He is also author of Soldiers Before Missiles: Meeting the Challenge from the World's Streets (Carnegie Policy Brief #4, 2001).