Ali A. Jalali, distinguished professor at the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies at the National Defense University, spoke about NATO's record in Afghanistan just ahead of the NATO summit in Bucharest. Despite the difficult task of state-building in an environment of violence, Jalali said that victory in Afghanistan is possible, but not through "business as usual." To date, NATO partners have undertaken "separate and fragmented actions," he said; if NATO is to be successful in Afghanistan, it must adopt a long-term, nationally coordinated, and holistic strategy.