To defend against attack, civil society organizations can promote internal ethical leadership, strong downward accountability to their constituencies, be politically independent, and build coalitions across social and political divides.
Joseph Bahout is a nonresident scholar in Carnegie’s Middle East Program. His research focuses on political developments in Lebanon and Syria, regional spillover from the Syrian crisis, and identity politics across the region.
Associate Fellow Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program
Saskia Brechenmacher is an associate fellow in Carnegie’s Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program, where her research focuses on gender, conflict, and governance, as well as trends in civic activism and civil society repression.
Program ManagerProgram on Civil-Military Relations in Arab StatesCarnegie Middle East Center
Romy Nasr is the program manager on the Civil-Military Relations in Arab States (CMRAS) program at the Carnegie Middle East Center, where her work focuses on defense affairs and security issues related to North Africa and the Levant.
Paul Stronski is a senior fellow in Carnegie’s Russia and Eurasia Program, where his research focuses on the relationship between Russia and neighboring countries in Central Asia and the South Caucasus.
Sarah Yerkes is a fellow in Carnegie’s Middle East Program, where her research focuses on Tunisia’s political, economic, and security developments as well as state-society relations in the Middle East and North Africa.
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